723 research outputs found

    The Ancillary Carbon Benefits of SO2 Reductions from a Small-Boiler Policy in Taiyuan, PRC

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    To reduce carbon emissions worldwide, it makes sense to consider the possibility of developed countries paying for carbon reductions in developing countries. Developing countries may be interested in such activities if the ancillary air pollution benefits are large. This paper reports on an RFF survey of the emissions benefits (and costs) of reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from small, coal-burning boilers in Taiyuan, an industrial, northern Chinese city that recently banned uncontrolled coal combustion in certain small boilers in the downtown area. We find significant carbon benefits in percentage terms - on the order of 50% to 95% reduction - associated with this SO2 control policy, with large reduction potential elsewhere in Taiyuan and China. While the cost for boilers that switched out of coal was almost $3,600 per ton of SO2 reduced, these ancillary carbon reductions are truly "free" from a social cost perspective.Carbon, air pollution, informal sector, ancillary benefits, abatement costs, survey

    Coalescence driven self-organization of growing nanodroplets around a microcap

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    The coalescence between growing droplets is important for the surface coverage and spatial arrangements of droplets on surfaces. In this work, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is utilized to in-situ investigate the formation of nanodroplets around the rim of a polymer microcap, with sub-micron spatial and millisecond temporal resolution. We observe that the coalescence among droplets occurs frequently during their growth by solvent exchange. Our experimental results show that the position of the droplet from two merged droplets is related to the size of the parent droplets. The position of the coalesced droplet and the ratio of parent droplet sizes obey a scaling law, reflecting a coalescence preference based on the size inequality. As a result of droplet coalescence, the angles between the centroids of two neighbouring droplets increase with time, obeying a nearly symmetrical arrangement of droplets at various time intervals. The evolution of the position and number from coalescence of growing droplets is modelled. The mechanism for coalescence driven self-organization of growing droplets is general, applicable to microcaps of different sizes and droplets of different liquids. The understanding from this work may be valuable for positioning nanodroplets by nucleation and growth without using templates.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figure

    3D spherical-cap fitting procedure for (truncated) sessile nano- and micro-droplets & -bubbles

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    In the study of nanobubbles, nanodroplets or nanolenses immobilised on a substrate, a cross-section of a spherical-cap is widely applied to extract geometrical information from atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic images. In this paper, we have developed a comprehensive 3D spherical cap fitting procedure (3D-SCFP) to extract morphologic characteristics of complete or truncated spherical caps from AFM images. Our procedure integrates several advanced digital image analysis techniques to construct a 3D spherical cap model, from which the geometrical parameters of the nanostructures are extracted automatically by a simple algorithm. The procedure takes into account all valid data points in the construction of the 3D spherical cap model to achieve high fidelity in morphology analysis. We compare our 3D fitting procedure with the commonly used 2D cross-sectional profile fitting method to determine the contact angle of a complete spherical cap and a truncated spherical cap. The results from 3D-SCFP are consistent and accurate, while 2D fitting is unavoidably arbitrary in selection of the cross-section and has a much lower number of data points on which the fitting can be based, which in addition is biased to the top of the spherical cap. We expect that the developed 3D spherical-cap fitting procedure will find many applications in imaging analysis.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figure

    The Near-Term Impacts of Carbon Mitigation Policies on Manufacturing Industries

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    Who will pay for new policies to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions in the United States? This paper considers a slice of the question by examining the near-term impact on domestic manufacturing industries of both upstream (economy-wide) and downstream (electric power industry only) carbon mitigation policies. Detailed Census data on the electricity use of four-digit manufacturing industries is combined with input-output information on interindustry purchases to paint a detailed picture of carbon use, including effects on final demand. This approach, which freezes capital and other inputs at current levels and assumes that all costs are passed forward, yields upper-bound estimates of total costs. The results are best viewed as descriptive of the relative burdens within the manufacturing sector rather than as a measure of absolute costs. Overall, the principal conclusion is that within the manufacturing sector (which by definition excludes coal production and electricity generation), only a small number of industries would bear a disproportionate short-term burden of a carbon tax or similar policy. Not surprisingly, an electricity-only policy affects very different manufacturing industries than an economy-wide carbon tax.distribution of carbon mitigation costs, industrial impacts of carbon policies
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