22,622 research outputs found

    The Wiener and Terminal Wiener indices of trees

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    Heydari \cite{heydari2013} presented very nice formulae for the Wiener and terminal Wiener indices of generalized Bethe trees. It is pity that there are some errors for the formulae. In this paper, we correct these errors and characterize all trees with the minimum terminal Wiener index among all the trees of order nn and with maximum degree Δ\Delta.Comment: 13 page

    Momentum polarization: an entanglement measure of topological spin and chiral central charge

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    Topologically ordered states are quantum states of matter with topological ground state degeneracy and quasi-particles carrying fractional quantum numbers and fractional statistics. The topological spin θa=2πha\theta_a=2\pi h_a is an important property of a topological quasi-particle, which is the Berry phase obtained in the adiabatic self-rotation of the quasi-particle by 2π2\pi. For chiral topological states with robust chiral edge states, another fundamental topological property is the edge state chiral central charge cc. In this paper we propose a new approach to compute the topological spin and chiral central charge in lattice models by defining a new quantity named as the momentum polarization. Momentum polarization is defined on the cylinder geometry as a universal subleading term in the average value of a "partial translation operator". We show that the momentum polarization is a quantum entanglement property which can be computed from the reduced density matrix, and our analytic derivation based on edge conformal field theory shows that the momentum polarization measures the combination hac24h_a-\frac{c}{24} of topological spin and central charge. Numerical results are obtained for two example systems, the non-Abelian phase of the honeycomb lattice Kitaev model, and the ν=1/2\nu=1/2 Laughlin state of a fractional Chern insulator described by a variational Monte Carlo wavefunction. The numerical results verifies the analytic formula with high accuracy, and further suggests that this result remains robust even when the edge states cannot be described by a conformal field theory. Our result provides a new efficient approach to characterize and identify topological states of matter from finite size numerics.Comment: 13 pages, 8 figure