221 research outputs found

    Pathogenic mechanism of paclitaxel coated balloons and protective effects of dexamethasone

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    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the world’s first leading cause of death contributing to 18.8 million global deaths worldwide. Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) stems from CVD and is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic morbidity. The prevalence of PAD increases significantly with age, and complications can lead to ischemia, non-healing wounds, gangrene, and amputation. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting are the mainstream techniques used to treat severe PAD. Due to high risk of restenosis within 12 months of the procedure, drug-coated balloons (DCB) and drug eluting-stents (DES) have become the standard of care since the early 2000s. Paclitaxel (PTX) is an extremely potent anti-restenotic agent used to coat balloons and stents to inhibit the assembly of microtubules, thereby inhibiting cell division. A recent systemic review and meta-analysis examined the all-cause of death rates at 1-year, 2-year, and 5-years of PCB and PES in the femoral and/or popliteal arteries versus control. The authors demonstrated a significantly increased risk of death in the PTX arm, which resulted in a warning from the FDA and a halt in the use of PTX devices. The massive release of PTX following balloon or stent application on the vessel wall and into systemic circulation may attribute to delayed systemic toxicity. Dexamethasone (DEX) is a glucocorticoid what may serve as an alternative anti-restenotic agent. In this study, we examined PTX induced toxicity in endothelial cells using cell biological assays and migration assay. This study showed that PTX significantly reduced EC survival, proliferation, and migration. DEX was able to partially rescue the EC functions but was unable to abrogate PTX-induced inhibition of EC migration. RNA sequencing was used to examine differentially expressed genes modulated by PTX and DEX. Protein expression of MCP-1, CKS-2, CD137, and BMF were analyzed with western blots and found that DEX was able to abrogate the PTX induced effects. Overall, this study was the first to examine the potential mechanism(s) of PTX induced systemic toxicity in CVD and may serve as a stepping stone for future investigations to abrogate the adverse effects of PTX mediated devices

    Second-order optimality conditions for bilevel programs

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    Second-order optimality conditions of the bilevel programming problems are dependent on the second-order directional derivatives of the value functions or the solution mappings of the lower level problems under some regular conditions, which can not be calculated or evaluated. To overcome this difficulty, we propose the notion of the bi-local solution. Under the Jacobian uniqueness conditions for the lower level problem, we prove that the bi-local solution is a local minimizer of some one-level minimization problem. Basing on this property, the first-order necessary optimality conditions and second-order necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for the bi-local optimal solution of a given bilevel program are established. The second-order optimality conditions proposed here only involve second-order derivatives of the defining functions of the bilevel problem. The second-order sufficient optimality conditions are used to derive the Q-linear convergence rate of the classical augmented Lagrangian method

    Research on the Replacement Business Tax with ValueAdded Tax of Chinese Banking Industry

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    As the heart of China’s financial system, the banking industry plays an important role in the nation’s economic development. Under Chinese current financial tax system, the main taxes levied to Banks are business tax (BT) and income tax. Shouldering heavy tax burden and being taxed repeatedly, such policies on the Chinese banking industry undermines the integrity of Value-Added Tax (VAT) chain, contrary to the international guiding rule that the financial industry should be lighter taxed. The defect of Chinese financial tax system makes the phenomenon that the capital accumulation rate is lower than business expansion rate. As a result, Chinese banking industry lack a foundation for further development and international competitiveness. This paper, using developed countries’ successful experiences in financial tax system for reference, in combination with China's practices, proposes to include the banks into the levying scale of VAT, handling local and central income distribution properly to consummate Chinese financial tax system reform in replacing the business tax with VATgradually

    Single-valued neutrosophic TODIM method based on cumulative prospect theory for multi-attribute group decision making and its application to medical emergency management evaluation

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    In recent years, emergent public health events happen from time to time, which puts forward new requirements for the establishment of a perfect medical emergency system. It is a new direction to evaluate the effectiveness of medical emergency systems from the perspective of multi-attribute group decision making (MAGDM) issues. In such article, we tend to resolve the MAGDM issues under single-valued neutrosophic sets (SVNSs) with TODIM method based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). And the single-valued neutrosophic TODIM method based on CPT (CPT-SVNTODIM) for MAGDM issues are developed. This new method not only inherits advantages of classical TODIM method, but also has further improvement in some aspects. For example, we set up the entropy to calculate attribute weights for ensuring the more objective decision-making process. Furthermore, it is also an extension of MAGDM method to utilize single-valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs) to depict decision makers’ ideas. In addition, we introduce the application of CPT-SVN-TODIM method in the assessment of medical emergency management. And finally, the reliability of CPT-SVN-TODIM method is confirmed by comparing with some other methods

    Earnings Management for Second-time IPOs: Evidence from China

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    In China’s IPO market, firms that fail in their first IPO application make considerable adjustments before making their second IPO application. Examining firms that applied for IPOs during 2004-2018, we find that failed IPO applicant firms “package” themselves to obtain approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) by reducing accrual earnings management and increasing real earnings management. In addition, after a successful second IPO application, these firms relax their vigilance vis-à-vis the CSRC and increase both accrual and real earnings management. This pre-IPO “packaging” behavior deceives investors, leading to higher IPO prices and higher post-IPO returns

    The First Verification Test of Space-Ground Collaborative Intelligence via Cloud-Native Satellites

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    Recent advancements in satellite technologies and the declining cost of access to space have led to the emergence of large satellite constellations in Low Earth Orbit. However, these constellations often rely on bent-pipe architecture, resulting in high communication costs. Existing onboard inference architectures suffer from limitations in terms of low accuracy and inflexibility in the deployment and management of in-orbit applications. To address these challenges, we propose a cloud-native-based satellite design specifically tailored for Earth Observation tasks, enabling diverse computing paradigms. In this work, we present a case study of a satellite-ground collaborative inference system deployed in the Tiansuan constellation, demonstrating a remarkable 50\% accuracy improvement and a substantial 90\% data reduction. Our work sheds light on in-orbit energy, where in-orbit computing accounts for 17\% of the total onboard energy consumption. Our approach represents a significant advancement of cloud-native satellite, aiming to enhance the accuracy of in-orbit computing while simultaneously reducing communication cost.Comment: Accepted by China Communication

    Study on the composition optimization method for improving the fluidity of cast Ti2_2AlNb alloy and its mechanism

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    In this paper, the effects of Al, Nb main elements, Fe, Mo, W, Co, B, Si and their contents on the fluidity of Ti-22Al-25Nb alloy were investigated. The composition that was beneficial to improve the fluidity was screened through the thermodynamic software calculating thermophysical parameters affecting the fluidity of Ti2_2AlNb alloy, the numerical simulation test of its fluidity and the verification test of the fluidity of optimized alloys. Finally, the improvement mechanism of the alloy fluidity was discussed. Results showed that the appropriate reduction of Nb element was better than Al element for the improvement of fluidity. The addition of trace Fe, B and Si elements were beneficial to the improvement of fluidity, the improvement effect of B element was best, while the addition of trace Mo, W, Co were not conducive to the improvement of fluidity. The cessation mechanism of Ti2_2AlNb alloy is the cessation mechanism of the alloy with a wide crystallization temperature range. The composition which was most beneficial to improve the fluidity was Ti-22Al-24Nb-0.1B. The main reasons for the improvement of the fluidity had two sides: on the one hand, the reduction of 1at% Nb and the addition of 0.1at% B not only increased the superheat and crystallization latent heat of the alloy, but also reduced the melt viscosity and thermal conductivity, thus improving the fluidity. On the other hand, the TiB phase refined the grains, the fine grains prevented the dendrite from growing into developed dendrite networks, inhibited the adverse effect of the increase in the width of the solidification zone on the fluidity, reduced the flow resistance of the molten metal, and further improved the fluidity of the alloy.Comment: 23 pages, 14 figures, research pape

    LLMCad: Fast and Scalable On-device Large Language Model Inference

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    Generative tasks, such as text generation and question answering, hold a crucial position in the realm of mobile applications. Due to their sensitivity to privacy concerns, there is a growing demand for their execution directly on mobile devices. Currently, the execution of these generative tasks heavily depends on Large Language Models (LLMs). Nevertheless, the limited memory capacity of these devices presents a formidable challenge to the scalability of such models. In our research, we introduce LLMCad, an innovative on-device inference engine specifically designed for efficient generative Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. The core idea behind LLMCad revolves around model collaboration: a compact LLM, residing in memory, takes charge of generating the most straightforward tokens, while a high-precision LLM steps in to validate these tokens and rectify any identified errors. LLMCad incorporates three novel techniques: (1) Instead of generating candidate tokens in a sequential manner, LLMCad employs the smaller LLM to construct a token tree, encompassing a wider range of plausible token pathways. Subsequently, the larger LLM can efficiently validate all of these pathways simultaneously. (2) It employs a self-adjusting fallback strategy, swiftly initiating the verification process whenever the smaller LLM generates an erroneous token. (3) To ensure a continuous flow of token generation, LLMCad speculatively generates tokens during the verification process by implementing a compute-IO pipeline. Through an extensive series of experiments, LLMCad showcases an impressive token generation speed, achieving rates up to 9.3x faster than existing inference engines
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