2,884 research outputs found

    Statistical inferences for functional data

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    With modern technology development, functional data are being observed frequently in many scientific fields. A popular method for analyzing such functional data is ``smoothing first, then estimation.'' That is, statistical inference such as estimation and hypothesis testing about functional data is conducted based on the substitution of the underlying individual functions by their reconstructions obtained by one smoothing technique or another. However, little is known about this substitution effect on functional data analysis. In this paper this problem is investigated when the local polynomial kernel (LPK) smoothing technique is used for individual function reconstructions. We find that under some mild conditions, the substitution effect can be ignored asymptotically. Based on this, we construct LPK reconstruction-based estimators for the mean, covariance and noise variance functions of a functional data set and derive their asymptotics. We also propose a GCV rule for selecting good bandwidths for the LPK reconstructions. When the mean function also depends on some time-independent covariates, we consider a functional linear model where the mean function is linearly related to the covariates but the covariate effects are functions of time. The LPK reconstruction-based estimators for the covariate effects and the covariance function are also constructed and their asymptotics are derived. Moreover, we propose a L2L^2-norm-based global test statistic for a general hypothesis testing problem about the covariate effects and derive its asymptotic random expression. The effect of the bandwidths selected by the proposed GCV rule on the accuracy of the LPK reconstructions and the mean function estimator is investigated via a simulation study. The proposed methodologies are illustrated via an application to a real functional data set collected in climatology.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/009053606000001505 in the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    The steady state in noncollinear magnetic multilayers

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    There are at least two different putative steady state solutions for current across noncollinear magnetic multilayers; one has a discontinuity in the spin current at the interface the other is continuous. We compare the resistance of the two and find the solution with the continuous spin currents is lower. By using the entropic principle we can state that this solution is a better estimate of the resistance for a noncollinear magneticComment: 14 pages, 4 figures,Submitted to Physical Review

    Identification of transverse spin currents in noncollinear magnetic structures

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    We show that the transverse components of spin current in a ferromagnet is linked to an off diagonal spin component of the transmission matrix at interfaces;it has little to do with the mismatch of band structures between dissimilar metals. When we take account of this component,not considered in prior analyses, we find spin torque comes from a region of at lease 3 nm around an interface.Comment: 4 pages, Submitted to Physical Review Letter

    Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

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    This paper considers the problem of charging station pricing and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) station selection. When a PEV needs to be charged, it selects a charging station by considering the charging prices, waiting times, and travel distances. Each charging station optimizes its charging price based on the prediction of the PEVs' charging station selection decisions and the other station's pricing decision, in order to maximize its profit. To obtain insights of such a highly coupled system, we consider a one-dimensional system with two competing charging stations and Poisson arriving PEVs. We propose a multi-leader-multi-follower Stackelberg game model, in which the charging stations (leaders) announce their charging prices in Stage I, and the PEVs (followers) make their charging station selections in Stage II. We show that there always exists a unique charging station selection equilibrium in Stage II, and such equilibrium depends on the charging stations' service capacities and the price difference between them. We then characterize the sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of the pricing equilibrium in Stage I. We also develop a low complexity algorithm that efficiently computes the pricing equilibrium and the subgame perfect equilibrium of the two-stage Stackelberg game.Comment: 15 pages, 21 figure