1,400 research outputs found

    Model Selection for High Dimensional Quadratic Regression via Regularization

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    Quadratic regression (QR) models naturally extend linear models by considering interaction effects between the covariates. To conduct model selection in QR, it is important to maintain the hierarchical model structure between main effects and interaction effects. Existing regularization methods generally achieve this goal by solving complex optimization problems, which usually demands high computational cost and hence are not feasible for high dimensional data. This paper focuses on scalable regularization methods for model selection in high dimensional QR. We first consider two-stage regularization methods and establish theoretical properties of the two-stage LASSO. Then, a new regularization method, called Regularization Algorithm under Marginality Principle (RAMP), is proposed to compute a hierarchy-preserving regularization solution path efficiently. Both methods are further extended to solve generalized QR models. Numerical results are also shown to demonstrate performance of the methods.Comment: 37 pages, 1 figure with supplementary materia

    On the adaptive elastic-net with a diverging number of parameters

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    We consider the problem of model selection and estimation in situations where the number of parameters diverges with the sample size. When the dimension is high, an ideal method should have the oracle property [J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 96 (2001) 1348--1360] and [Ann. Statist. 32 (2004) 928--961] which ensures the optimal large sample performance. Furthermore, the high-dimensionality often induces the collinearity problem, which should be properly handled by the ideal method. Many existing variable selection methods fail to achieve both goals simultaneously. In this paper, we propose the adaptive elastic-net that combines the strengths of the quadratic regularization and the adaptively weighted lasso shrinkage. Under weak regularity conditions, we establish the oracle property of the adaptive elastic-net. We show by simulations that the adaptive elastic-net deals with the collinearity problem better than the other oracle-like methods, thus enjoying much improved finite sample performance.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/08-AOS625 the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Component selection and smoothing in multivariate nonparametric regression

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    We propose a new method for model selection and model fitting in multivariate nonparametric regression models, in the framework of smoothing spline ANOVA. The ``COSSO'' is a method of regularization with the penalty functional being the sum of component norms, instead of the squared norm employed in the traditional smoothing spline method. The COSSO provides a unified framework for several recent proposals for model selection in linear models and smoothing spline ANOVA models. Theoretical properties, such as the existence and the rate of convergence of the COSSO estimator, are studied. In the special case of a tensor product design with periodic functions, a detailed analysis reveals that the COSSO does model selection by applying a novel soft thresholding type operation to the function components. We give an equivalent formulation of the COSSO estimator which leads naturally to an iterative algorithm. We compare the COSSO with MARS, a popular method that builds functional ANOVA models, in simulations and real examples. The COSSO method can be extended to classification problems and we compare its performance with those of a number of machine learning algorithms on real datasets. The COSSO gives very competitive performance in these studies.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/009053606000000722 in the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Variable selection for the multicategory SVM via adaptive sup-norm regularization

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    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a popular classification paradigm in machine learning and has achieved great success in real applications. However, the standard SVM can not select variables automatically and therefore its solution typically utilizes all the input variables without discrimination. This makes it difficult to identify important predictor variables, which is often one of the primary goals in data analysis. In this paper, we propose two novel types of regularization in the context of the multicategory SVM (MSVM) for simultaneous classification and variable selection. The MSVM generally requires estimation of multiple discriminating functions and applies the argmax rule for prediction. For each individual variable, we propose to characterize its importance by the supnorm of its coefficient vector associated with different functions, and then minimize the MSVM hinge loss function subject to a penalty on the sum of supnorms. To further improve the supnorm penalty, we propose the adaptive regularization, which allows different weights imposed on different variables according to their relative importance. Both types of regularization automate variable selection in the process of building classifiers, and lead to sparse multi-classifiers with enhanced interpretability and improved accuracy, especially for high dimensional low sample size data. One big advantage of the supnorm penalty is its easy implementation via standard linear programming. Several simulated examples and one real gene data analysis demonstrate the outstanding performance of the adaptive supnorm penalty in various data settings.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/08-EJS122 the Electronic Journal of Statistics (http://www.i-journals.org/ejs/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Congruences for modular forms and applications to crank functions

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    In this paper, motivated by the work of Mahlburg, we find congruences for a large class of modular forms. Moreover, we generalize the generating function of the Andrews-Garvan-Dyson crank on partition and establish several new infinite families of congruences. In this framework, we showed that both the birank of an ordered pair of partitions introduced by Hammond and Lewis, and kk-crank of kk-colored partition introduced by Fu and Tang process the same as the partition function and crank

    Robust Brain MRI Image Classification with SIBOW-SVM

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    The majority of primary Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors in the brain are among the most aggressive diseases affecting humans. Early detection of brain tumor types, whether benign or malignant, glial or non-glial, is critical for cancer prevention and treatment, ultimately improving human life expectancy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) stands as the most effective technique to detect brain tumors by generating comprehensive brain images through scans. However, human examination can be error-prone and inefficient due to the complexity, size, and location variability of brain tumors. Recently, automated classification techniques using machine learning (ML) methods, such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), have demonstrated significantly higher accuracy than manual screening, while maintaining low computational costs. Nonetheless, deep learning-based image classification methods, including CNN, face challenges in estimating class probabilities without proper model calibration. In this paper, we propose a novel brain tumor image classification method, called SIBOW-SVM, which integrates the Bag-of-Features (BoF) model with SIFT feature extraction and weighted Support Vector Machines (wSVMs). This new approach effectively captures hidden image features, enabling the differentiation of various tumor types and accurate label predictions. Additionally, the SIBOW-SVM is able to estimate the probabilities of images belonging to each class, thereby providing high-confidence classification decisions. We have also developed scalable and parallelable algorithms to facilitate the practical implementation of SIBOW-SVM for massive images. As a benchmark, we apply the SIBOW-SVM to a public data set of brain tumor MRI images containing four classes: glioma, meningioma, pituitary, and normal. Our results show that the new method outperforms state-of-the-art methods, including CNN