2,264 research outputs found

    Phase diagrams for quantum Brownian motion models on two-dimensional Bravais lattices

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    We study quantum Brownian motion (QBM) models for a particle in a dissipative environment coupled to a periodic potential. We review QBM for a particle in a one-dimensional periodic potential and extend the study to that for a particle in two-dimensional (2D) periodic potentials of four Bravais lattice types: square, rectangular, triangular (hexagonal), and centered rectangular. We perform perturbative renormalization group analyses to derive the zero temperature flow diagrams and phase boundaries for a particle in these potentials, and observe localization behavior dependent on the anisotropy of the lattice parameters.Comment: 16 pages, 5 figure

    Fast Compact Laser Shutter Using a Direct Current Motor and 3D Printing

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    We present a mechanical laser shutter design that utilizes a DC electric motor to rotate a blade which blocks and unblocks a light beam. The blade and the main body of the shutter are modeled with computer aided design (CAD) and are produced by 3D printing. Rubber flaps are used to limit the blade's range of motion, reducing vibrations and preventing undesirable blade oscillations. At its nominal operating voltage, the shutter achieves a switching speed of (1.22 ±\pm 0.02) m/s with 1 ms activation delay and 10 μ\mus jitter in its timing performance. The shutter design is simple, easy to replicate, and highly reliable, showing no failure or degradation in performance over more than 10810^8 cycles.Comment: 4 pages, 6 figures; supplementary materials for shutter replication added under "Ancillary files

    Geometric frustration of hard-disk packings on cones

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    Conical surfaces pose an interesting challenge to crystal growth: a crystal growing on a cone can wrap around and meet itself at different radii. We use a disk-packing algorithm to investigate how this closure constraint can geometrically frustrate the growth of single crystals on cones with small opening angles. By varying the crystal seed orientation and cone angle, we find that -- except at special commensurate cone angles -- crystals typically form a seam that runs along the axial direction of the cone, while near the tip, a disordered particle packing forms. We show that the onset of disorder results from a finite-size effect that depends strongly on the circumference and not on the seed orientation or cone angle. This finite-size effect occurs also on cylinders, and we present evidence that on both cylinders and cones, the defect density increases exponentially as circumference decreases. We introduce a simple model for particle attachment at the seam that explains the dependence on the circumference. Our findings suggest that the growth of single crystals can become frustrated even very far from the tip when the cone has a small opening angle. These results may provide insights into the observed geometry of conical crystals in biological and materials applications.Comment: 12 pages, 13 figure

    Pharmacological changes in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis parallel initiation of atrial arrhythmogenesis in murine langendorff-perfused hearts

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    Intracellular Ca2+ overload has been associated with established atrial arrhythmogenesis. The present experiments went on to correlate acute initiation of atrial arrhythmogenesis in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts with changes in Ca2+ homeostasis in isolated atrial myocytes following pharmacological procedures that modified the storage or release of sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+ or inhibited entry of extracellular Ca2+.Caffeine (1mmol/L) elicited diastolic Ca2+ waves in regularly stimulated atrial myocytes immediately following addition. This was followed by a decline in the amplitude of the evoked transients and the disappearance of such diastolic events, suggesting partial SR Ca2+ depletion.Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA; 0.15µmol/L) produced more gradual reductions in evoked Ca2+ transients and abolished diastolic Ca2+ events produced by the further addition of caffeine.Nifedipine (0.5µmol/L) produced immediate reductions in evoked Ca2+ transients. Further addition of caffeine produced an immediate increase followed by a decline in the amplitude of the evoked Ca2+ transients, without eliciting diastolic Ca2+ events.These findings correlated with changes in spontaneous and provoked atrial arrhythmogenecity in mouse isolated Langendorf-perfused hearts. Thus, caffeine was pro-arrhythmogenic immediately following but not >5min after application and both CPA and nifedipine pretreatment inhibited such arrhythmogenesis.Together, these findings relate acute atrial arrhythmogenesis in intact hearts to diastolic Ca2+ events in atrial myocytes that, in turn, depend upon a finite SR Ca2+ store and diastolic Ca2+ release following Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release initiated by the entry of extracellular Ca2+

    The Strong Cell-based Hydrogen Peroxide Generation Triggered by Cold Atmospheric Plasma.

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    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important signaling molecule in cancer cells. However, the significant secretion of H2O2 by cancer cells have been rarely observed. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a near room temperature ionized gas composed of neutral particles, charged particles, reactive species, and electrons. Here, we first demonstrated that breast cancer cells and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells generated micromolar level H2O2 during just 1 min of direct CAP treatment on these cells. The cell-based H2O2 generation is affected by the medium volume, the cell confluence, as well as the discharge voltage. The application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer treatment has been intensively investigated over the past decade. Several cellular responses to CAP treatment have been observed including the consumption of the CAP-originated reactive species, the rise of intracellular reactive oxygen species, the damage on DNA and mitochondria, as well as the activation of apoptotic events. This is a new previously unknown cellular response to CAP, which provides a new prospective to understand the interaction between CAP and cells in vitro and in vivo. The short-lived reactive species in CAP may activate cells in vivo to generate long-lived reactive species such as H2O2, which may trigger immune attack on tumorous tissues via the H2O2-mediated lymphocyte activation