238,981 research outputs found

    Gauge Invariance and QCD Twist-3 Factorization for Single Spin Asymmetries

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    The collinear factorization at twist-3 for Drell-Yan processes is studied with the motivation to solve the discrepancy in literature about the single spin asymmetry in the lepton angular distribution, and to show how QCD gauge invariance is realized in the hadronic tensor. The obtained result here agrees with our early result derived with a totally different approach. In addition to the asymmetry we can construct another two observables to identify the spin effect. We show that the gauge invariance of different contributions in the hadronic tensor is made in different ways by summing the effects of gluon exchanges. More interestingly is that we can show that the virtual correction to one structure function of the hadronic tensor, hence to some weighted SSA observables, is completely determined by the quark form factor. This will simplify the calculation of higher order corrections. The corresponding result in semi-inclusive DIS is also given for the comparison with Drell-Yan processes.Comment: Small changes, accepted by JHE

    Femtosecond electron and spin dynamics probed by nonlinear optics

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    A theoretical calculation is performed for the ultrafast spin dynamics in nickel using an exact diagonalization method. The present theory mainly focuses on a situation where the intrinsic charge and spin dynamics is probed by the nonlinear (magneto-)optical responses on the femtosecond time scale, i.e. optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and the nonlinear magneto-optical Kerr effect (NOLIMOKE). It is found that the ultrafast charge and spin dynamics are observable on the time scale of 10 fs. The charge dynamics proceeds ahead of the spin dynamics, which indicates the existence of a spin memory time. The fast decay results from the loss of coherence in the initial excited state. Both the material specific and experimental parameters affect the dynamics. We find that the increase of exchange interaction mainly accelerates the spin dynamics rather than the charge dynamics. A reduction of the hopping integrals, such as present at interfaces, slows down the spin dynamics significantly. Besides, it is found that a spectrally broad excitation yields the intrinsic speed limit of the charge (SHG) and spin dynamics (NOLIMOKE) while a narrower width prolongs the dynamics. This magnetic interface dynamics then should become accessible to state of art time resolved nonlinear-optical experiments.Comment: 5 pages with 3 figures, to appear in Applied. Phys. B 68, (1999

    Twist-3 Contributions in Semi-Inclusive DIS with Transversely Polarized Target

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    We study semi-inclusive DIS with a transversely polarized target in the approach of collinear factorization. The effects related with the transverse polarization are at twist-3. We derive the complete result of twist-3 contributions to the relevant hadronic tensor at leading order of αs\alpha_s, and construct correspondingly experimental observables. Measuring these observables will help to extract the twist-2 transversity distribution, twist-3 distributions and twist-3 fragmentation functions of the produced unpolarized hadron. A detailed comparison with the approach of transverse-momentum-dependent factorization is made.Comment: discussions and references are added. Published version in PL

    QCD Evolutions of Twist-3 Chirality-Odd Operators

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    We study the scale dependence of twist-3 distributions defined with chirality-odd quark-gluon operators. To derive the scale dependence we explicitly calculate these distributions of multi-parton states instead of a hadron. Taking one-loop corrections into account we obtain the leading evolution kernel in the most general case. In some special cases the evolutions are simplified. We observe that the obtained kernel in general does not get simplified in the large-NcN_c limit in contrast to the case of those twist-3 distributions defined only with chirality-odd quark operators. In the later, the simplification is significant.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figure