59 research outputs found

    Visual results of scale factor <i>η</i>.

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    Visual results of scale factor η.</p

    Formulas of the maize seed-coating agents.

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    <p>*P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) is poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-<i>co</i>-butylmethacrylate) and SA is salicylic acid; <b>formula 0</b> is the mixture of talc and bentonite without P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) or SA; <b>formulas 1</b> and <b>2</b> are mixtures of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA), talc and bentonite without SA; <b>formulas 3</b> and <b>4</b> are mixtures of SA, talc and bentonite without P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA); <b>formulas 5</b> and <b>6</b> are mixtures of SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA), talc and bentonite. In addition, for formula 5, 1.05 g of SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) contained 0.1 g of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) and 0.05 g of SA; for formula 6, 1.50 g of SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel contained 1 g of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) and 0.50 g of SA.</p><p>Formulas of the maize seed-coating agents.</p

    The swelling and deswelling characteristics of the P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel.

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    <p>P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) is poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-<i>co</i>-butylmethacrylate). The swelling characteristic is determined by the swelling ratio of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel in distilled water at 5°C; the deswelling characteristic is determined by the water retention ratio of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel in distilled water at 30°C. Error bars represent ±S.E.</p

    Multiple effects of glycine on stability and rheology behavior of hydrated Mg(OH)<sub>2</sub> slurry

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    Hydration of MgO is a potential technology for economically preparing Mg(OH)2 slurry. Understanding the rheological behavior evolution of the slurry during MgO hydration, particularly in the presence of hydration agent, is essential for better control of the hydrated Mg(OH)2 slurry’s rheology. In this work, Mg(OH)2 slurry was prepared by hydrating MgO in the presence of glycine. The effect of glycine on the rheological behavior of the hydrated Mg(OH)2 slurry have been investigated by means of viscosity, shear stress, sedimentation measurements, particle size distribution, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry and zeta potential. Results showed that shear thinning rheological slurry could be made by hydration at 80 °C for 1 h. The yield stress of the slurry is 27.49 ± 0.81 Pa, and no settling occurs within 7 days. Yet, in the absence of glycine, the structure of the slurry was unstable and easily settled even after 8 h of hydration. Glycine has multiple effects on the slurry’s solid loading, particle morphology, particle size distribution, and zeta potential of the slurry. In addition, the neutral zwitterionic form of glycine may serve as an inter-particle lubricant, reducing viscosity.</p

    Effect of coating agent on seedling peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activities of the maize varieties Huang C (HC) and Mo17 after chilling stress.

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    <p>(*significant difference (a = 0.05, LSD) among treatments within the same seedling part for the same variety. Error bars represent ±S.E. For additional explanations, see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120695#pone.0120695.g007" target="_blank">Fig. 7</a>.)</p

    Effect of particle gradation on the properties of Mg(OH)<sub>2</sub> slurry: viscosity, stability, and rheology

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    In this article, multipeak Mg(OH)2 slurries, that is, unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal, were prepared by blending Mg(OH)2 of distinct particle sizes (d50 of 1, 3, 7, 10, and 20 μm). The effects of particle gradation on the properties of Mg(OH)2 slurry, such as viscosity, stability, and rheological behavior, were investigated. Also, the packing efficiency was analyzed by the compartment packing model. The results revealed that viscosity and stability decrease with particle size or larger particle mixing in unimodal and bimodal schemes. However, trimodal slurry viscosity did not significantly change with particle size ratio. The packing efficiency calculated by the compartment packing model has the opposite trend of viscosity, but this trend is not so strictly consistent in the three-peak gradation scheme. Among the unimodal, bimodal, and trimodal slurries with better viscosity and stability (10, 3 + 10 (3:7), and 1 + 7 + 10 μm (3:1:6)), the trimodal slurry had the lowest viscosity and the highest stability. Its highest yield stress (4.66 ± 0.23 Pa) and flow stress (7.67 ± 0.38 Pa) indicated its structural stability, and it showed good structural recovery capability, reestablishing about 87% in 60 seconds. This might be explained by the fine particles forming a bridge between the coarse particles, resulting in a stable and networked structure.</p

    The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of SA, the P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel and the SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel.

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    <p>P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) is poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-<i>co</i>-butylmethacrylate) and SA is salicylic acid; The SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel is the P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel loaded by SA through a solvent sorption method; The absorption peaks showed in the figure indicate special chemical bonds or functional groups. The top figure is the FTIR spectrum from 400–2000 cm<sup>-1</sup> wavenumbers and the bottom figure is the FTIR spectrum from 2000–4000 cm<sup>-1</sup> wavenumbers.</p

    Effect of agent on seedling growth of maize varieties Huang C (HC) and Mo17 after chilling stress.

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    <p>(<b>A</b> and <b>B</b> are Huang C; <b>C</b> and <b>D</b> are Mo17. The seedlings grew for 11 days including 5-day germination and growth at 25°C, 3-day chilling stress at 5°C and 3-day recover growth at 25°C. <b>Ck</b>. Control: maize seeds coated with formula 0; <b>J1</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 1; <b>J2</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 2; <b>S1</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 3; <b>S2</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 4; <b>J1S1</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 5; <b>J2S2</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 6. The coating agents were applied at a rate of 1 g per 5 g naked seeds for all of the treatments. For the different formulas, see the explanations in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120695#pone.0120695.t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>.)</p

    Parametric All-Optical Modulation on Chip

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    We demonstrate parametric all-optical modulation in a periodically-poled lithium niobate microring resonator on chip. It employs quantum Zeno blockade between two distinct waves, a signal and a pump, through their sum-frequency generation at a large per-photon efficiency of 8.2 MHz. With nanosecond pump pulses at 6 mW peak power, 85.7% modulation extinction is observed, marking over 30~times efficiency improvement across various previous implementations. With only 2 mW pump peak power, 43.0% modulation extinction is observed for a doubly-stronger signal at 4 mW. This demonstrates, for the first time, that optical transistors with cascadability and fan-out are possible with just parametric nonlinear optics. These results, together with inherent advantages in such photonic integrated circuits, open the door to scalable technology for all-optical and quantum information processing
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