669 research outputs found

    Gapped quantum liquids and topological order, stochastic local transformations and emergence of unitarity

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    In this work we present some new understanding of topological order, including three main aspects: (1) It was believed that classifying topological orders corresponds to classifying gapped quantum states. We show that such a statement is not precise. We introduce the concept of \emph{gapped quantum liquid} as a special kind of gapped quantum states that can "dissolve" any product states on additional sites. Topologically ordered states actually correspond to gapped quantum liquids with stable ground-state degeneracy. Symmetry-breaking states for on-site symmetry are also gapped quantum liquids, but with unstable ground-state degeneracy. (2) We point out that the universality classes of generalized local unitary (gLU) transformations (without any symmetry) contain both topologically ordered states and symmetry-breaking states. This allows us to use a gLU invariant -- topological entanglement entropy -- to probe the symmetry-breaking properties hidden in the exact ground state of a finite system, which does not break any symmetry. This method can probe symmetry- breaking orders even without knowing the symmetry and the associated order parameters. (3) The universality classes of topological orders and symmetry-breaking orders can be distinguished by \emph{stochastic local (SL) transformations} (i.e.\ \emph{local invertible transformations}): small SL transformations can convert the symmetry-breaking classes to the trivial class of product states with finite probability of success, while the topological-order classes are stable against any small SL transformations, demonstrating a phenomenon of emergence of unitarity. This allows us to give a new definition of long-range entanglement based on SL transformations, under which only topologically ordered states are long-range entangled.Comment: Revised version. Figures and references adde

    Universal Entanglers for Bosonic and Fermionic Systems

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    A universal entangler (UE) is a unitary operation which maps all pure product states to entangled states. It is known that for a bipartite system of particles 1,21,2 with a Hilbert space Cd1βŠ—Cd2\mathbb{C}^{d_1}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{d_2}, a UE exists when min⁑(d1,d2)β‰₯3\min{(d_1,d_2)}\geq 3 and (d1,d2)β‰ (3,3)(d_1,d_2)\neq (3,3). It is also known that whenever a UE exists, almost all unitaries are UEs; however to verify whether a given unitary is a UE is very difficult since solving a quadratic system of equations is NP-hard in general. This work examines the existence and construction of UEs of bipartite bosonic/fermionic systems whose wave functions sit in the symmetric/antisymmetric subspace of CdβŠ—Cd\mathbb{C}^{d}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{d}. The development of a theory of UEs for these types of systems needs considerably different approaches from that used for UEs of distinguishable systems. This is because the general entanglement of identical particle systems cannot be discussed in the usual way due to the effect of (anti)-symmetrization which introduces "pseudo entanglement" that is inaccessible in practice. We show that, unlike the distinguishable particle case, UEs exist for bosonic/fermionic systems with Hilbert spaces which are symmetric (resp. antisymmetric) subspaces of CdβŠ—Cd\mathbb{C}^{d}\otimes\mathbb{C}^{d} if and only if dβ‰₯3d\geq 3 (resp. dβ‰₯8d\geq 8). To prove this we employ algebraic geometry to reason about the different algebraic structures of the bosonic/fermionic systems. Additionally, due to the relatively simple coherent state form of unentangled bosonic states, we are able to give the explicit constructions of two bosonic UEs. Our investigation provides insight into the entanglement properties of systems of indisitinguishable particles, and in particular underscores the difference between the entanglement structures of bosonic, fermionic and distinguishable particle systems.Comment: 15 pages, comments welcome, TQC2013 Accepted Tal

    Unextendible Product Basis for Fermionic Systems

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    We discuss the concept of unextendible product basis (UPB) and generalized UPB for fermionic systems, using Slater determinants as an analogue of product states, in the antisymmetric subspace \wedge^ N \bC^M. We construct an explicit example of generalized fermionic unextendible product basis (FUPB) of minimum cardinality N(Mβˆ’N)+1N(M-N)+1 for any Nβ‰₯2,Mβ‰₯4N\ge2,M\ge4. We also show that any bipartite antisymmetric space \wedge^ 2 \bC^M of codimension two is spanned by Slater determinants, and the spaces of higher codimension may not be spanned by Slater determinants. Furthermore, we construct an example of complex FUPB of N=2,M=4N=2,M=4 with minimum cardinality 55. In contrast, we show that a real FUPB does not exist for N=2,M=4N=2,M=4 . Finally we provide a systematic construction for FUPBs of higher dimensions using FUPBs and UPBs of lower dimensions.Comment: 17 pages, no figure. Comments are welcom

    Codes for Simultaneous Transmission of Quantum and Classical Information

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    We consider the characterization as well as the construction of quantum codes that allow to transmit both quantum and classical information, which we refer to as `hybrid codes'. We construct hybrid codes [ ⁣[n,k:m,d] ⁣]q[\![n,k{: }m,d]\!]_q with length nn and distance dd, that simultaneously transmit kk qudits and mm symbols from a classical alphabet of size qq. Many good codes such as [ ⁣[7,1:1,3] ⁣]2[\![7,1{: }1,3]\!]_2, [ ⁣[9,2:2,3] ⁣]2[\![9,2{: }2,3]\!]_2, [ ⁣[10,3:2,3] ⁣]2[\![10,3{: }2,3]\!]_2, [ ⁣[11,4:2,3] ⁣]2[\![11,4{: }2,3]\!]_2, [ ⁣[11,1:2,4] ⁣]2[\![11,1{: }2,4]\!]_2, [ ⁣[13,1:4,4] ⁣]2[\![13,1{: }4,4]\!]_2, [ ⁣[13,1:1,5] ⁣]2[\![13,1{: }1,5]\!]_2, [ ⁣[14,1:2,5] ⁣]2[\![14,1{: }2,5]\!]_2, [ ⁣[15,1:3,5] ⁣]2[\![15,1{: }3,5]\!]_2, [ ⁣[19,9:1,4] ⁣]2[\![19,9{: }1,4]\!]_2, [ ⁣[20,9:2,4] ⁣]2[\![20,9{: }2,4]\!]_2, [ ⁣[21,9:3,4] ⁣]2[\![21,9{: }3,4]\!]_2, [ ⁣[22,9:4,4] ⁣]2[\![22,9{: }4,4]\!]_2 have been found. All these codes have better parameters than hybrid codes obtained from the best known stabilizer quantum codes.Comment: 6 page

    Codeword Stabilized Quantum Codes for Asymmetric Channels

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    We discuss a method to adapt the codeword stabilized (CWS) quantum code framework to the problem of finding asymmetric quantum codes. We focus on the corresponding Pauli error models for amplitude damping noise and phase damping noise. In particular, we look at codes for Pauli error models that correct one or two amplitude damping errors. Applying local Clifford operations on graph states, we are able to exhaustively search for all possible codes up to length 99. With a similar method, we also look at codes for the Pauli error model that detect a single amplitude error and detect multiple phase damping errors. Many new codes with good parameters are found, including nonadditive codes and degenerate codes.Comment: 5 page

    Concatenated Codes for Amplitude Damping

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    We discuss a method to construct quantum codes correcting amplitude damping errors via code concatenation. The inner codes are chosen as asymmetric Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes. By concatenating with outer codes correcting symmetric errors, many new codes with good parameters are found, which are better than the amplitude damping codes obtained by any previously known construction.Comment: 5 page

    On Corporate Hedging and Firm Focus and on Bank Board Structure

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    This dissertation consists of two essays: one looks at the relation between firm focus and hedging in the REIT industry, and the other compares bank board structures in China and the US. The first essay presented in Chapter 2 examines the relation between corporate hedging and firm focus in the REIT industry by using a sample of REITs in 2005 and in 2007. We find 46.41% utilization rate in 2005 and 43.41% in 2007. Consistent with our hypothesis, we find that, relative to diversified firms, focused firms are more likely to engage in hedging. Focused firms also tend to be involved in greater amount of hedging. We also document a negative relation between hedging and transparency, although the evidence is not overwhelming. Consistent with previous literature, there is a strong firm size effect. The second essay presented in Chapter 3 examines the relation between bank performance and board structure by using a sample of 74 US banks and 53 Chinese banks for the period 2002 to 2006. Indeed, the empirical relation between board structure and performance is virtually non-existing in China. In particular, for the US sample, the board size is found to be significantly and negatively correlated with ROA, but a larger board also tends to be associated with lower costs. For Chinese banks, the evidence indicates that governance variables are not significantly correlated with performances with the exception of block ownership: there is strong evidence that the relation between block ownership and bank performance is negative. Additionally, we find substantial differences in board structure between the two countries; in particular the average board size and the proportion of outside directors for US banks are almost twice of those in China
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