80 research outputs found

    Clinical significance of left atrial anatomic abnormalities identified by cardiac computed tomography

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    Purpose: The clinical significance of newly identified left atrial anatomic abnormalities (LAAA)— accessory appendages, diverticula, septal pouches—by multidetector CT (MDCT) remains unclear. Similar anatomical outpouchings, i.e., the left atrial appendage, have been associated with cardioembolisms and arrhythmia. To test the hypothesis that LAAA are also associated with increased risk of these events, we performed a retrospective analysis to examine the association of LAAA in patients undergoing CT with embolic events and arrhythmia. Methods: 242 patients (mean age 56 SD 12 years, 41% female) were selected who had CT coronary angiography performed with 64-row MDCT between 2007 and 2012 if complete clinical history records were available. CT images were independently reviewed for the presence of LAAA. Association of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or transient ischemic attack (TIA), atrial fibrillation, and palpitations to LAAA was calculated using odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and Fisher’s exact test. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes via multiple logistic regression, patients with accessory appendages are more likely to have reported palpitations (OR: 1.80; CI: 1.03 - 3.16). Patients with diverticula and septal pouches are significantly older than those without these abnormalities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Septal pouches are associated with diabetes (OR: 2.29; 95%CI: 1.15 - 4.54). Conclusions: Accessory left atrial appendages are associated with palpitations. Patients with septal pouches and diverticula are significantly older than those patients without these anatomic abnormalities, suggesting age dependency of these findings. None of these anatomic abnormalities were associated with thromboembolic events after adjustment for potentially confounding comorbidities

    CT ​EvaLuation ​by ​ARtificial ​Intelligence ​For ​Atherosclerosis, Stenosis and Vascular ​MorphologY ​(CLARIFY): ​A ​Multi-center, international study

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    Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis evaluation by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is promising for coronary artery disease (CAD) risk stratification, but time consuming and requires high expertise. Artificial Intelligence (AI) applied to CCTA for comprehensive CAD assessment may overcome these limitations. We hypothesized AI aided analysis allows for rapid, accurate evaluation of vessel morphology and stenosis. METHODS: This was a multi-site study of 232 patients undergoing CCTA. Studies were analyzed by FDA-cleared software service that performs AI-driven coronary artery segmentation and labeling, lumen and vessel wall determination, plaque quantification and characterization with comparison to ground truth of consensus by three L3 readers. CCTAs were analyzed for: % maximal diameter stenosis, plaque volume and composition, presence of high-risk plaque and Coronary Artery Disease Reporting & Data System (CAD-RADS) category. RESULTS: AI performance was excellent for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value as follows: >70% stenosis: 99.7%, 90.9%, 99.8%, 93.3%, 99.9%, respectively; >50% stenosis: 94.8%, 80.0%, 97.0, 80.0%, 97.0%, respectively. Bland-Altman plots depict agreement between expert reader and AI determined maximal diameter stenosis for per-vessel (mean difference -0.8%; 95% CI 13.8% to -15.3%) and per-patient (mean difference -2.3%; 95% CI 15.8% to -20.4%). L3 and AI agreed within one CAD-RADS category in 228/232 (98.3%) exams per-patient and 923/924 (99.9%) vessels on a per-vessel basis. There was a wide range of atherosclerosis in the coronary artery territories assessed by AI when stratified by CAD-RADS distribution. CONCLUSIONS: AI-aided approach to CCTA interpretation determines coronary stenosis and CAD-RADS category in close agreement with consensus of L3 expert readers. There was a wide range of atherosclerosis identified through AI.proofpublishe

    Safety and feasibility of third-party multipotent adult progenitor cells for immunomodulation therapy after liver transplantation--a phase I study (MISOT-I)

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    BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for many end-stage liver diseases. However, the life-long immunosuppression needed to prevent graft rejection causes clinically significant side effects. Cellular immunomodulatory therapies may allow the dose of immunosuppressive drugs to be reduced. In the current protocol, we propose to complement immunosuppressive pharmacotherapy with third-party multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), a culture-selected population of adult adherent stem cells derived from bone marrow that has been shown to display potent immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. In animal models, MAPCs reduce the need for pharmacological immunosuppression after experimental solid organ transplantation and regenerate damaged organs. METHODS: Patients enrolled in this phase I, single-arm, single-center safety and feasibility study (n=3-24) will receive 2 doses of third-party MAPCs after liver transplantation, on days 1 and 3, in addition to a calcineurin-inhibitor-free "bottom-up" immunosuppressive regimen with Basiliximab, mycophenolic acid, and steroids. The study objective is to evaluate the safety and clinical feasibility of MAPC administration in this patient cohort. The primary endpoint of the study is safety, assessed by standardized dose-limiting toxicity events. One secondary endpoint is the time until first biopsy-proven acute rejection, in order to collect first evidence of efficacy. Dose escalation (150, 300, 450, and 600 million MAPCs) will be done according to a 3 + 3 classical escalation design (4 groups of 3-6 patients each). DISCUSSION: If MAPCs are safe for patients undergoing liver transplantation in this study, a phase II/III trial will be conducted to assess their clinical efficacy

    Large Proteoglycan Complexes and Disturbed Collagen Architecture in the Corneal Extracellular Matrix of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VII (Sly Syndrome)

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    Purpose. Deficiencies in enzymes involved in proteoglycan (PG) turnover underlie a number of rare mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), investigations of which can considerably aid understanding of the roles of PGs in corneal matrix biology. Here, the authors analyze novel pathologic changes in MPS VII (Sly syndrome) to determine the nature of PG-collagen associations in stromal ultrastructure. Methods. Transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography were used to investigate PG-collagen architectures and interactions in a cornea obtained at keratoplasty from a 22-year-old man with MPS VII, which was caused by a compound heterozygous mutation in the GUSB gene. Results. Transmission electron microscopy showed atypical morphology of the epithelial basement membrane and Bowman's layer in MPS VII. Keratocytes were packed with cytoplasmic vacuoles containing abnormal glycosaminoglycan (GAG) material, and collagen fibrils were thinner than in normal cornea and varied considerably throughout anterior (14–32 nm), mid (13–42 nm), and posterior (17–39 nm) regions of the MPS VII stroma. PGs viewed in three dimensions were striking in appearance in that they were significantly larger than PGs in normal cornea and formed highly extended linkages with multiple collagen fibrils. Conclusions. Cellular changes in the MPS VII cornea resemble those in other MPS. However, the wide range of collagen fibril diameters throughout the stroma and the extensive matrix presence of supranormal-sized PG structures appear to be unique features of this disorder. The findings suggest that the accumulation of stromal chondroitin-, dermatan-, and heparan-sulfate glycosaminoglycans in the absence of β-glucuronidase-mediated degradation can modulate collagen fibrillogenesis

    Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

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    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer

    Should the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae be of wider concern for veterinary and medical science?

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    The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is best known as a threat to the laying-hen industry; adversely affecting production and hen health and welfare throughout the globe, both directly and through its role as a disease vector. Nevertheless, D. gallinae is being increasingly implemented in dermatological complaints in non-avian hosts, suggesting that its significance may extend beyond poultry. The main objective of the current work was to review the potential of D. gallinae as a wider veterinary and medical threat. Results demonstrated that, as an avian mite, D. gallinae is unsurprisingly an occasional pest of pet birds. However, research also supports that these mites will feed from a range of other animals including: cats, dogs, rodents, rabbits, horses and man. We conclude that although reported cases of D. gallinae infesting mammals are relatively rare, when coupled with the reported genetic plasticity of this species and evidence of permanent infestations on non-avian hosts, potential for host-expansion may exist. The impact of, and mechanisms and risk factors for such expansion are discussed, and suggestions for further work made. Given the potential severity of any level of host-expansion in D. gallinae, we conclude that further research should be urgently conducted to confirm the full extent of the threat posed by D. gallinae to (non-avian) veterinary and medical sectors

    Genetic variants associated with mosaic Y chromosome loss highlight cell cycle genes and overlap with cancer susceptibility.

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    The Y chromosome is frequently lost in hematopoietic cells, which represents the most common somatic alteration in men. However, the mechanisms that regulate mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY), and its clinical relevance, are unknown. We used genotype-array-intensity data and sequence reads from 85,542 men to identify 19 genomic regions (P < 5 × 10-8) that are associated with mLOY. Cumulatively, these loci also predicted X chromosome loss in women (n = 96,123; P = 4 × 10-6). Additional epigenome-wide methylation analyses using whole blood highlighted 36 differentially methylated sites associated with mLOY. The genes identified converge on aspects of cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation, including DNA synthesis (NPAT), DNA damage response (ATM), mitosis (PMF1, CENPN and MAD1L1) and apoptosis (TP53). We highlight the shared genetic architecture between mLOY and cancer susceptibility, in addition to inferring a causal effect of smoking on mLOY. Collectively, our results demonstrate that genotype-array-intensity data enables a measure of cell cycle efficiency at population scale and identifies genes implicated in aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer susceptibility.This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource under Application Number 9905. This work was supported by the UK Medical Research Council (Unit Programme numbers MC_UU_12015/1 and MC_UU_12015/2). Research in the S. Jackson laboratory is funded by Cancer Research UK (CRUK; programme grant C6/A18796), with Institute core funding provided by CRUK (C6946/A14492) and the Wellcome Trust (WT092096). S. Jackson receives salary from the University of Cambridge, supplemented by CRUK

    Relatório de estágio em farmácia comunitária

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    Relatório de estágio realizado no âmbito do Mestrado Integrado em Ciências Farmacêuticas, apresentado à Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Coimbr

    The Maryland self-referral law: History and implications

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