330 research outputs found

    Current guidelines and controversies in the diagnosis and therapy of hypertension in the elderly and very elderly ÔÇö a review of international recommendations

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    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) arterial hypertension remains the most important cause of death in the world. Due to ageing of the population and the proven importance of high blood pressure in older age, various expert groups dealing with hypertension worldwide have dedicated more and more separate recommendations to elderly (65ÔÇô79 years of age) and very elderly patients ( > 80 years of age). The subject of this work is to present and compare current guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension developed for this demographic segment. Due to the global significance in shaping the views on hypertension, the following Englishlanguage guidelines have been used for comparative analyses in this work: 2017 ACC/AHA Guideline, 2018 ESC//ESH Guidelines, Hypertension CanadaÔÇÖs 2018 Guidelines, 2019 Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2016 Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults by National Heart Foundation of Australia. The comparisons have been made based on of blood pressure criteria, the threshold values for drug treatment initiation and the blood pressure target values. In summary, hypertension guidelines for the elderly and very elderly differ significantly, although similar trends in their recommendations are evident

    Czynniki społeczne: moda czy ważny kierunek badań?

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    Chronic kidney disease in Polish elderly population aged 75+: results of the WOBASZ Senior Survey

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    PURPOSE: Kidney filtration decreases with age, which results in an increased frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the elderly population. The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and epidemiology of CKD in the Polish elderly population. METHODS: A representative sample of the Polish elderly population, composed of 918 people (F 452, M 466) in the age of Ôëą75┬áyears, was chosen. All participants had their history, anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters (creatinine, fasting glucose, complete cholesterol) evaluated. CKD was diagnosed when eGFR was <60┬áml/min/1.73┬ám(2). The comorbidities, anthropometric and social factors connected with the onset of CKD were also analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of CKD in the analyzed population was 26.9% (F 32.0%, M 15.8%), which gives an estimated number of 495,590 (95% CI 396,363ÔÇô594,817) patients in the study subpopulation. The majority of these people were in the G3A categoryÔÇö70.1%, while the remaining fell under the G3BÔÇö25.7%, G4ÔÇö3.1% and G5ÔÇö1.1% categories. Disease awareness among the participants was found to be at 17%. Arterial hypertension (AH) was more frequent in people with CKD (91.0 vs. 80.3%, P┬á<┬á0.001), whereas diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence was comparable in both CKD and non-CKD groups (11.7 vs. 11.4%, ns). In the examined group, DM had no influence on the frequency of CKD. In contrast, the presence of cardiovascular diseases substantially increased the chances of developing CKD (OR 1.87, P┬á<┬á0.05). CONCLUSION: 1. The prevalence of CKD in the Polish elderly population was 26.9%. 2. Awareness of CKD is low. 3. DM, increasing age and AH did not increase the risk of CKD. 4. Coexistence of cardiovascular diseases increased the risk of having CKD

    Blood pressure determinants. Part II. Application of some physical laws in the hemodynamics of cardiovascular system

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    Praca udowadnia u┼╝yteczno┼Ť─ç praw fizyki w zakresie charakterystyki uk┼éadu kr─ů┼╝enia i ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego. Autorzy skoncentrowali si─Ö na zagadnieniach zwi─ůzanych z dynamik─ů kr─ů┼╝enia krwi, w tym na zjawiskach zachodz─ůcych przy tradycyjnym pomiarze ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego. Poj─Öcia impedancji naczyniowej, podatno┼Ťci naczy┼ä oraz pulsacyjnego przep┼éywu krwi przedstawiono w kontek┼Ťcie ich praktycznego zastosowania w diagnostyce i leczeniu nadci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego oraz niewydolno┼Ťci serca, a tak┼╝e jako wyk┼éadniki o znaczeniu rokowniczym.This paper analyzes physical laws crucial for hemodynamics and arterial blood pressure. The major issue addressed is the dynamic aspects of circulation, including physical phenomena underlying the traditional way of the arterial pressure measurement. Terms: vascular impedance, vascular compliance, and pulsatile blood flow are exposed in context of their practical usage in diagnosis and treatment of hypertension and heart insufficiency, and also as indices of high prognostic value

    Blood pressure determinants. Part I: Structure &#8212; function links in blood pressure regulation. Reliability of blood pressure measurement

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    W niniejszym opracowaniu podj─Öli┼Ťmy pr├│b─Ö systematycznego wyszczeg├│lnienia, podstawowych czynnik├│w determinuj─ůcych ci┼Ťnienie t─Ötnicze: uwarunkowa┼ä morfologicznych, czynnik├│w fizycznych oraz zale┼╝no┼Ťci regulacyjnych. Dynamiczny charakter ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego skonfrontowano z koncepcj─ů o dominuj─ůcym wp┼éywie zaspokojenia potrzeb metabolicznych tkanek obwodowych na regulacj─Ö ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego. Praca zosta┼éa podzielona na trzy cz─Ö┼Ťci. W pierwszej, aktualnie prezentowanej, przypomniano metody pomiaru ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego i najcz─Östsze b┼é─Ödy pomiarowe oraz om├│wiono istotne w regulacji ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego zwi─ůzki strukturalno-czynno┼Ťciowe.The major structural, physical, and regulatory determinants of blood pressure are systematically reviewed. A dynamic nature of blood pressure is coupled with the idea that the regulation of blood pressure is primarily to meet metabolic needs of peripheral tissues. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first one, the basic methods of blood pressure measurement and the most common mistakes in its assessment are recalled. Links between morphological structure and function of essential impact on blood pressure regulation are discussed

    Aktualne wytyczne i kontrowersje w diagnostyce i terapii nadci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego u os├│b w wieku starszym i podesz┼éym ÔÇö przegl─ůd mi─Ödzynarodowych rekomendacji

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    Nadci┼Ťnienie t─Ötnicze (NT) wed┼éug ┼Üwiatowej Organizacji Zdrowia (WHO) pozostaje najwa┼╝niejsz─ů przyczyn─ů zgon├│w na ┼Ťwiecie. W zwi─ůzku z szybkim starzeniem si─Ö spo┼éecze┼ästw coraz wi─Öksze znaczenie dla praktyki klinicznej lekarzy podstawowej opieki zdrowotnej, kardiolog├│w, nefrolog├│w czy geriatr├│w ma ustalenie zasad diagnostyki i terapii NT u os├│b w wieku starszym (powy┼╝ej 65. r┼╝.) i os├│b w wieku podesz┼éym (powy┼╝ej 80. r┼╝.). Przedmiotem tej pracy jest przedstawienie i por├│wnanie obecnych wytycznych post─Öpowania w NT opracowanych przez r├│┼╝ne grupy ekspert├│w dla pacjent├│w w wieku starszym i podesz┼éym. Ze wzgl─Ödu na globalne znaczenie w kszta┼étowaniu pogl─ůd├│w w zakresie NT do analiz por├│wnawczych w tej pracy wykorzystano wytyczne angloj─Özyczne: 2017 ACC/AHA Guideline, 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines, Hypertension CanadaÔÇÖs 2018 Guidelines, 2019 Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), 2016 Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults by National Heart Foundation of Australia. W por├│wnaniu zalece┼ä uwzgl─Ödniono kryteria, takie jak: warto┼Ť─ç ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego, warto┼Ť─ç progowa dla w┼é─ůczenia leczenia oraz warto┼Ťci docelowe ci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego. Podsumowuj─ůc, wytyczne dotycz─ůce terapii NT u os├│b starszych znacz─ůco r├│┼╝ni─ů si─Ö mi─Ödzy sob─ů, cho─ç widoczne s─ů podobne trendy we wprowadzanych zaleceniach

    Treatment of Arterial Hypertension during Rapid Economic and Political Transition in Poland

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    Leczenie nadci┼Ťnienia t─Ötniczego, z uwagi na jego rozpowszechnienie i powik┼éania, stanowi w wi─Ökszo┼Ťci kraj├│w powa┼╝ny problem zdrowotny, spo┼éeczny i ekonomiczny. W Stanach Zjednoczonych narodowy program prewencji nadci┼Ťnienia wprowadzony w latach 70. spowodowa┼é po 25 latach zdecydowan─ů popraw─Ö wykrywalno┼Ťci i skuteczno┼Ťci leczenia nadci┼Ťnienia z r├│wnoczesnym obni┼╝eniem ┼Ťmiertelno┼Ťci z powodu choroby wie┼äcowej i udar├│w m├│zgu. W zwi─ůzku z istotnie pogarszaj─ůc─ů si─Ö sytuacj─ů epidemiologiczn─ů w krajach Europy ┼Ürodkowo-Wschodniej istnieje potrzeba wprowadzenia w tych krajach zdecydowanych dzia┼éa┼ä na rzecz lepszej kontroli nadci┼Ťnienia. W artykule om├│wiono potencjalne sposoby poprawy sytuacji w kontek┼Ťcie skomplikowanych zmian spo┼éecznych i ekonomicznych zachodz─ůcych od 1990 roku w Polsce i krajach s─ůsiednich.Hypertension, due to its prevalence and serious complications, constitutes a major public health problem and implies a great economical and social cost. In the U.S., "The National High Blood Pressure Education Program" was developed and implemented in early seventies. Subsequently, improved levels of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were demonstrated, coincident with continued declines in coronary heart disease mortality and striking declines in stroke mortality. At present, in the eastern part of Europe where cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are on the increase, there is a particulary urgent need for more vigorous public health action against hypertension. The potential activities that should be undertaken are discussed in this paper in the context of a rapid transformation into a market economy, which followed the collapse of the former economic and political system. This process, being in itself a unique psychological and social experience for our populations, presents a source of many difficulties to adjust to new economic conditions, progress in medical knowledge and new mechanisms at the pharmaceutical market

    The burden of cardiovascular disease risk factors: A current problem

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    The pandemic of COVID-19, which in Poland raised all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) death rates by over 15% only in 2020, naturally decreased the attention to the prevention of CVD. Nevertheless, the reports on the characteristics of COVID-19 patients and especially on factors related to the severe or fatal outcome of the disease included information on more frequent CVD risk factors and atherosclerotic CVD. This article reviews the evidence on the exposure to CVD risk factors in the Polish adult population and discusses evidence on the associations between CVD risk factors and COVID-19. CVD and CVD risk factors, obesity and diabetes, in particular, are related to the severe course or fatal outcome of COVID-19. High prevalence of CVD risk factors with an increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes could make the Polish population more sensitive to COVID-19 incidence and put infected persons at higher risk of serious complications and fatal outcome. Likely, the increased number of CVD deaths observed during the pandemic could be explained partially by the high prevalence of CVD risk factors and atherosclerotic CVD, as well as by the direct cardiac complications of COVID-19, short-term higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, and possibly by the underuse of lifesaving procedures in acute and chronic CVD

    Analysis of the effect of inertial forces of the electrolyte flow on the ECM machining effects of curvilinear rotary surfaces

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    This paper presents an analysis of the impact of inertial forces of the electrolyte flow in an interelectrode gap on the effects of ECM process of curvilinear rotary surfaces. Considering a laminar flow in the interelectrode gap, the equations of the flow of the mixture of electrolyte and hydrogen in the curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system have been defined. Two classes of equations of motion have been formulated, which differ in the estimates referred to the components of velocity and pressure, and which were analytically solved using the method of perturbation. Using the machined surface shape evolution equation, the energy equation, and the analytical solutions for velocity and pressure, the ECM-characteristic distributions have been determined: of mean velocity, pressure, mean temperature, current density, gas phase concentration, the gap height after the set machining time for the case when there is no influence of inertial forces, the effect of centrifugal forces and, at the same time, centrifugal and longitudinal inertial forces
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