140 research outputs found

    Numerical simulations of unbounded cyclotron-maser emissions

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    Numerical simulations have been conducted to study the spatial growth rate and emission topology of the cyclotron-maser instability responsible for stellar/planetary auroral magnetospheric radio emission and intense non-thermal radio emission in other astrophysical contexts. These simulations were carried out in an unconstrained geometry, so that the conditions existing within the source region of some natural electron cyclotron masers could be more closely modelled. The results have significant bearing on the radiation propagation and coupling characteristics within the source region of such non-thermal radio emissions

    Field Assessment of AtCBF1 Transgenic Potato Lines (Solanum tuberosum) for Drought Tolerance

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    Abstract Drought prone areas have been increasing around the world and it is expected that these areas will continue to expand and become more severe due to climate change. Increasing the drought stress tolerance of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) could aid in feeding the growing global population. The Arabidopsis CBF1 gene (AtCBF1), which has been shown to increase drought tolerance in other plants, was transformed into a cultivated potato line under the control of the stress inducible promoter COR15a. The expression of the AtCBF1 transgene was verified by RT-PCR and the transformed lines were evaluated in field trials to assess agronomic performance under sub-optimal water management. Despite expression of the AtCBF1 gene, none of the transgenic lines out-performed the control cultivar under drought-stressed conditions. Abiotic stress responsive genes from cultivated potato and wild related species may yield more promising results thus CBF1 genes from S. tuberosum and S. commersonii will be transformed into the potato cultivar Desiree and will be field tested for drought tolerance. Resumen Las áreas con riesgo de sequía se han estado incrementando alrededor del mundo y se espera que estas superficies continuarán en expansión volviéndose más severas debido al cambio climático. El aumento a la tolerancia al agobio hídrico de la papa cultivada (Solanum tuberosum) pudiera ayudar en la alimentación de la población global en crecimiento. El gen de Arabidopsis CBF1 (AtCBF1) que se ha demostrado que aumenta la tolerancia a la sequía en otras plantas, se introdujo en una línea de papa cultivada bajo el control del promotor de inducción de agobio COR15a. La expresión del transgen AtCBF1 se verificó mediante RT-PCR y se evaluaron las líneas transformadas en ensayos de campo para analizar el comportamiento agronómico bajo manejo subóptimo de agua. A pesar de la expresión del gen AtCBF1, ninguna de las líneas transgénicas superó en comportamiento a la variedad testigo bajo condiciones de agobio hídrico. Genes de respuesta de agobio abiótico de papa cultivada y de especies silvestres relacionadas pudieran rendir resultados más promisorios, de manera que los genes CBF1 de S. tuberosum y S. commersonii serán incorporados a la variedad de papa Desiree y serán probados en el campo para tolerancia a sequía

    Overcoming Self-Incompatibility in Diploid Potato Using CRISPR-Cas9

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    Potato breeding can be redirected to a diploid inbred/F1 hybrid variety breeding strategy if self-compatibility can be introduced into diploid germplasm. However, the majority of diploid potato clones (Solanum spp.) possess gametophytic self-incompatibility that is primarily controlled by a single multiallelic locus called the S-locus which is composed of tightly linked genes, S-RNase (S-locus RNase) and multiple SLFs (S-locus F-box proteins), which are expressed in the style and pollen, respectively. Using S-RNase genes known to function in the Solanaceae gametophytic SI mechanism, we identified S-RNase alleles with flower-specific expression in two diploid self-incompatible potato lines using genome resequencing data. Consistent with the location of the S-locus in potato, we genetically mapped the S-RNase gene using a segregating population to a region of low recombination within the pericentromere of chromosome 1. To generate self-compatible diploid potato lines, a dual single-guide RNA (sgRNA) strategy was used to target conserved exonic regions of the S-RNase gene and generate targeted knockouts (KOs) using a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) approach. Self-compatibility was achieved in nine S-RNase KO T0 lines which contained bi-allelic and homozygous deletions/insertions in both genotypes, transmitting self compatibility to T1 progeny. This study demonstrates an efficient approach to achieve stable, consistent self-compatibility through S-RNase KO for use in diploid potato breeding approaches

    The End of the Rainbow: What Can We Say About the Extragalactic Sub-Megahertz Radio Sky?

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    The Galactic disc is opaque to radio waves from extragalactic sources with frequencies nu less than ~3 MHz. However, radio waves with kHz, Hz, and even lower frequencies may propagate through the intergalactic medium (IGM). I argue that the presence of these waves can be inferred by using the Universe as our detector. I discuss possible sub-MHz sources and set new non-trivial upper limits on the energy density of sub-MHz radio waves in galaxy clusters and the average cosmic background. Limits based on five effects are considered: (1) changes in the expansion of the Universe from the radiation energy density (2) heating of the IGM by free-free absorption; (3) radiation pressure squeezing of IGM clouds by external radio waves; (4) synchrotron heating of electrons in clusters; and (5) Inverse Compton upscattering of sub-MHz radio photons. Any sub-MHz background must have an energy density much smaller than the CMB at frequencies below 1 MHz. The free-free absorption bounds from the Lyman-alpha forest are potentially the strongest, but are highly dependent on the properties of sub-MHz radio scattering in the IGM. I estimate an upper limit of 6 * 10^4 L_sun Mpc^-3 for the emissivity within Lyman-alpha forest clouds in the frequency range 5 - 200 Hz. The sub-MHz energy density in the Coma cluster is constrained to be less than ~10^-15 erg cm^-3. At present, none of the limits is strong enough to rule out a maximal T_b = 10^12 K sub-MHz synchrotron background, but other sources may be constrained with a better knowledge of sub-MHz radio propagation in the IGM.Comment: Accepted by MNRAS, 4 figures, 20 pages

    The Murchison Widefield Array: The Square Kilometre Array Precursor at Low Radio Frequencies

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    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is one of three Square Kilometre Array Precursor telescopes and is located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory in the Murchison Shire of the mid-west of Western Australia, a location chosen for its extremely low levels of radio frequency interference. The MWA operates at low radio frequencies, 80–300 MHz, with a processed bandwidth of 30.72 MHz for both linear polarisations, and consists of 128 aperture arrays (known as tiles) distributed over a ~3-km diameter area. Novel hybrid hardware/software correlation and a real-time imaging and calibration systems comprise the MWA signal processing backend. In this paper, the as-built MWA is described both at a system and sub-system level, the expected performance of the array is presented, and the science goals of the instrument are summarised

    Is Earth special?

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    Utilization of mechanical power and associations with clinical outcomes in brain injured patients: a secondary analysis of the extubation strategies in neuro-intensive care unit patients and associations with outcome (ENIO) trial

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    Background: There is insufficient evidence to guide ventilatory targets in acute brain injury (ABI). Recent studies have shown associations between mechanical power (MP) and mortality in critical care populations. We aimed to describe MP in ventilated patients with ABI, and evaluate associations between MP and clinical outcomes. Methods: In this preplanned, secondary analysis of a prospective, multi-center, observational cohort study (ENIO, NCT03400904), we included adult patients with ABI (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 12 before intubation) who required mechanical ventilation (MV) ≥ 24 h. Using multivariable log binomial regressions, we separately assessed associations between MP on hospital day (HD)1, HD3, HD7 and clinical outcomes: hospital mortality, need for reintubation, tracheostomy placement, and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Results: We included 1217 patients (mean age 51.2 years [SD 18.1], 66% male, mean body mass index [BMI] 26.3 [SD 5.18]) hospitalized at 62 intensive care units in 18 countries. Hospital mortality was 11% (n = 139), 44% (n = 536) were extubated by HD7 of which 20% (107/536) required reintubation, 28% (n = 340) underwent tracheostomy placement, and 9% (n = 114) developed ARDS. The median MP on HD1, HD3, and HD7 was 11.9 J/min [IQR 9.2-15.1], 13 J/min [IQR 10-17], and 14 J/min [IQR 11-20], respectively. MP was overall higher in patients with ARDS, especially those with higher ARDS severity. After controlling for same-day pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F ratio), BMI, and neurological severity, MP at HD1, HD3, and HD7 was independently associated with hospital mortality, reintubation and tracheostomy placement. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) was greater at higher MP, and strongest for: mortality on HD1 (compared to the HD1 median MP 11.9 J/min, aRR at 17 J/min was 1.22, 95% CI 1.14-1.30) and HD3 (1.38, 95% CI 1.23-1.53), reintubation on HD1 (1.64; 95% CI 1.57-1.72), and tracheostomy on HD7 (1.53; 95%CI 1.18-1.99). MP was associated with the development of moderate-severe ARDS on HD1 (2.07; 95% CI 1.56-2.78) and HD3 (1.76; 95% CI 1.41-2.22). Conclusions: Exposure to high MP during the first week of MV is associated with poor clinical outcomes in ABI, independent of P/F ratio and neurological severity. Potential benefits of optimizing ventilator settings to limit MP warrant further investigation

    ECMO for COVID-19 patients in Europe and Israel

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    Since March 15th, 2020, 177 centres from Europe and Israel have joined the study, routinely reporting on the ECMO support they provide to COVID-19 patients. The mean annual number of cases treated with ECMO in the participating centres before the pandemic (2019) was 55. The number of COVID-19 patients has increased rapidly each week reaching 1531 treated patients as of September 14th. The greatest number of cases has been reported from France (n = 385), UK (n = 193), Germany (n = 176), Spain (n = 166), and Italy (n = 136) .The mean age of treated patients was 52.6 years (range 16–80), 79% were male. The ECMO configuration used was VV in 91% of cases, VA in 5% and other in 4%. The mean PaO2 before ECMO implantation was 65 mmHg. The mean duration of ECMO support thus far has been 18 days and the mean ICU length of stay of these patients was 33 days. As of the 14th September, overall 841 patients have been weaned from ECMO support, 601 died during ECMO support, 71 died after withdrawal of ECMO, 79 are still receiving ECMO support and for 10 patients status n.a. . Our preliminary data suggest that patients placed on ECMO with severe refractory respiratory or cardiac failure secondary to COVID-19 have a reasonable (55%) chance of survival. Further extensive data analysis is expected to provide invaluable information on the demographics, severity of illness, indications and different ECMO management strategies in these patients
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