485 research outputs found

    Photoemission studies of the near Fermi level spectral weight shifts in FeSe1-xTex superconductor

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    Our valence band photoelectron spectroscopic studies show a temperature dependent spectral weight transfer near the Fermi level in the Fe-based superconductor FeSe1-xTex. Using theoretical band structure calculations we have shown that the weight transfer is due to the temperature induced changes in the Fe(Se,Te)4 tetrahedra. These structural changes lead to shifts in the electron occupancy from the xz/yz and x2-y2 orbitals to the 3z2-r2 orbitals indicating a temperature induced crossover from a metallic state to an Orbital Selective Mott (OSM) Phase. Our study presents the observation of a temperature induced crossover to a low temperature OSM phase in the family of Fe chalcogenides.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figure

    Nonequilibrium free energy of colloidal glasses under shear

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    The free energy of hard-sphere systems provides a direct link between the particle-scale structure and macroscopic thermodynamic properties. Here, we employ this framework to investigate the shear-induced structure of a colloidal glass, and link it to its macroscopic mechanical and thermodynamic state. We measure the nonequilibrium free energy under shear from the free volumes of the particles, and monitor its evolution with the applied strain. Unlike crystals, for which the elastic energy increases quadratically with strain due to affine particle displacements, for glasses the free energy decreases due to non-affine displacements and dissipation, reflecting the ability of the glass to reach deeper free-energy minima. We model this decrease using the nonaffine shear modulus and a standard viscous dissipative term. Our model and measurements allow us to disentangle the complex contributions of affine and nonaffine particle displacements in the transient shear deformation of glasses

    Airborne Infectious Agents and Other Pollutants in Automobiles for Domestic Use: Potential Health Impacts and Approaches to Risk Mitigation

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    Theworld total of passenger cars is expected to go fromthe current one billion to \u3e2.5 billion by 2050. Cars for domestic use account for ∼74% of the world’s yearly production ofmotorized vehicles. In North America, ∼80% of the commuters use their own car with another 5.6% travelling as passengers.With the current life-expectancy of 78.6 years, the average North American spends 4.3 years driving a car! This equates to driving 101 minutes/day with a lifetime driving distance of nearly 1.3 million km inside the confined and often shared space of the car with exposure to a mix of potentially harmful pathogens, allergens, endotoxins, particulates, and volatile organics. Such risks may increase in proportion to the unprecedented upsurge in the numbers of family cars globally. Though new technologies may reduce the levels of air pollution from car exhausts and other sources, they are unlikely to impact our in-car exposure to pathogens. Can commercial in-car air decontamination devices reduce the risk from airborne infections and other pollutants?We lack scientifically rigorous protocols to verify the claims of such devices. Here we discuss the essentials of a customized aerobiology facility and test protocols to assess such devices under field-relevant conditions

    Abortion fraud cases: A sociological analysis of fictitious crashes and scams involving insurance firms

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    The purpose of this study is to provide a sociological analysis of abortion occurrences with the aim of investigating factors cited by insurance companies about pregnant women. A qualitative research method has been used to gather field information and its tools are based on documents and files of interviews conducted with a number of women swindlers and their accomplices as well as experts and traffic police. The statistical population is 138 files of related documents, of which 15 were selected by a simple random sampling. There are also 58 women swindlers, gang associates, experts and traffic police officers who were purposefully selected to saturate the data and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with them. Validity and reliability were obtained based on the views of Marshall and Rasuman (1998). Due to the quality of the work, the analysis method was performed simultaneously with data collection, open and axial coding and compression by designing basic and mediating themes and then the main themes by using Max Qioda software. The results showed that individual, family, social, economic, political and cultural aspects are influential and motivating factors for criminals, but the most important can be economic and poverty. Also, fraudsters, by knowing and exploiting the weaknesses and legal gaps and sometimes using non-Iranians (Afghans), poor families, forged and prepared identity cards and obtained them through responsible people and infiltrating government agencies and insurance companies

    Post-Partum Pituitary Insufficiency and Livedo Reticularis Presenting a Diagnostic Challenge in a Resource Limited Setting in Tanzania: A Case Report, Clinical Discussion and Brief Review of Existing Literature.

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    Pituitary disorders following pregnancy are an important yet under reported clinical entity in the developing world. Conversely, post partum panhypopituitarism has a more devastating impact on women in such settings due to high fertility rates, poor obstetric care and scarcity of diagnostic and therapeutic resources available. A 37 year old African female presented ten years post partum with features of multiple endocrine deficiencies including hypothyroidism, hypoadrenalism, lactation failure and secondary amenorrhea. In addition she had clinical features of an underlying autoimmune condition. These included a history of post-partum thyroiditis, alopecia areata, livedo reticularis and deranged coagulation indices. A remarkable clinical response followed appropriate hormone replacement therapy including steroids. This constellation has never been reported before; we therefore present an interesting clinical discussion including a brief review of existing literature. Post partum pituitary insufficiency is an under-reported condition of immense clinical importance especially in the developing world. A high clinical index of suspicion is vital to ensure an early and correct diagnosis which will have a direct bearing on management and patient outcome

    Prevalence of ultrasonography proved polycystic ovaries in North Indian women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovaries (PCO) and their clinical expression (the polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common medical conditions linked through insulin resistance. We studied the prevalence of PCO and PCOS in women with diet and/or oral hypoglycemic treated T2DM and non-diabetic control women. DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: One hundred and five reproductive age group women with diet and /or oral hypoglycemic treated T2DM were the subjects of the study. Sixty age-matched non-diabetic women served as controls. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of the ovaries was used to diagnose PCO. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were also noted. RESULTS: Ultrasonographic prevalence of PCO was higher in women with diabetes than in non-diabetic subjects (61.0% vs. 36.7%, P < 0.003) whereas that of PCOS was 37.1% in diabetic subjects and 25% in non-diabetic controls (P > 0.1). Diabetic women with PCO had diabetes of significantly longer duration than those without PCO (4.19±2.0 versus 2.9±1.6 yrs; p < 0.05). Among both diabetic and non-diabetic women, those with PCO had significantly higher plasma LH, LH/FSH ratio, total testosterone and androstenedione levels. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates a higher prevalence of PCO in women with T2DM as compared to non-diabetic subjects

    Concomitant CIS on TURBT does not impact oncological outcomes in patients treated with neoadjuvant or induction chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy

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    © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018Background: Cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for muscle invasive bladder cancer improves all-cause and cancer specific survival. We aimed to evaluate whether the detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS) at the time of initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) has an oncological impact on the response to NAC prior to radical cystectomy. Patients and methods: Patients were identified retrospectively from 19 centers who received at least three cycles of NAC or induction chemotherapy for cT2-T4aN0-3M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by radical cystectomy between 2000 and 2013. The primary and secondary outcomes were pathological response and overall survival, respectively. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine the independent predictive value of CIS on these outcomes. Results: Of 1213 patients included in the analysis, 21.8% had concomitant CIS. Baseline clinical and pathologic characteristics of the ‘CIS’ versus ‘no-CIS’ groups were similar. The pathological response did not differ between the two arms when response was defined as pT0N0 (17.9% with CIS vs 21.9% without CIS; p = 0.16) which may indicate that patients with CIS may be less sensitive to NAC or ≤ pT1N0 (42.8% with CIS vs 37.8% without CIS; p = 0.15). On Cox regression model for overall survival for the cN0 cohort, the presence of CIS was not associated with survival (HR 0.86 (95% CI 0.63–1.18; p = 0.35). The presence of LVI (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.01–1.96; p = 0.04), hydronephrosis (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.23–2.16; p = 0.001) and use of chemotherapy other than ddMVAC (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.94; p = 0.03) were associated with shorter overall survival. For the whole cohort, the presence of CIS was also not associated with survival (HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.82–1.35; p = 0.70). Conclusion: In this multicenter, real-world cohort, CIS status at TURBT did not affect pathologic response to neoadjuvant or induction chemotherapy. This study is limited by its retrospective nature as well as variability in chemotherapy regimens and surveillance regimens.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio
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