15 research outputs found

    Advances in diagnosis, clinical management and molecular characterization of ovarian Brenner tumors

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    Brenner tumors is a very uncommon ovarian epithelial neoplasm, morphologically resembling the transitional cell neoplasm of urinary tract. It is further classified into three subtypes as a disease spectrum based on histological examination and tumorigenesis: benign Brenner tumors, borderline Brenner tumors (BBTs), and malignant Brenner tumors (MBTs). The etiology of these tumors is not well understood, and literature is limited due to the rarity of this entity, but recent advances, particularly in molecular alterations, have emerged. The scope of this review is to provide an update on the clinical, histopathological, and most recently, molecular characterizations of ovarian Brenner tumors

    Ovarian Cancer in Elderly Patients: Patterns of Care and Treatment Outcomes According to Age and Modified Frailty Index

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    The present study assessed the predictive value of age and Modified Frailty Index (mFI) on the management of primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients aged 70 years or older (elderly)

    Overcoming platinum resistance in ovarian cancer by targeting pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

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    ObjectivesInhibition of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), an upstream activator of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway, is known to augment sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. This study further tests the efficacy of PAPP-A inhibition with a monoclonal antibody inhibitor (mAb-PA) in ovarian cancer (OC) platinum-resistant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models.MethodsPAPP-A expression was quantitated in platinum-resistant PDX models by ELISA. A subset with High (n = 5) and Low (n = 2) expression were revived in female SCID/beige mice for studies with either saline, carboplatin/paclitaxel (CP) + mAb-PA, or CP + IgG2a. The primary endpoint was tumor area by ultrasound on day 28 relative to baseline. Conversion to platinum-sensitive was defined by average tumor regression below baseline. Statistical analyses included linear mixed effects modeling and Kaplan Meier curves. Response to therapy was correlated with changes in the ratio of phosphorylated/total AKT and ERK 1/2 using Wes analysis.ResultsThe addition of mAb-PA to CP induced tumor regression below baseline in one High PAPP-A PDX model; another three models exhibited notable growth inhibition relative to CP + IgG2a. None of the Low PAPP-A PDX models regressed below baseline. The PDX model with the greatest magnitude of tumor regression from baseline after combination therapy was maintained on single agent mAb-PA or IgG2a, but no benefit was observed. Decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 correlated with conversion to platinum-sensitive.ConclusionsThe addition of mAb-PA to CP overcame platinum-resistance in one of five High PAPP-A PDX models; three other models demonstrated improved platinum-response. This supports further clinical development of this novel therapeutic

    Prevention of Human Lymphoproliferative Tumor Formation in Ovarian Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts

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    Interest in preclinical drug development for ovarian cancer has stimulated development of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) or tumorgraft models. However, the unintended formation of human lymphoma in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–infected human lymphocytes can be problematic. In this study, we have characterized ovarian cancer PDXs which developed human lymphomas and explore methods to suppress lymphoproliferative growth. Fresh human ovarian tumors from 568 patients were transplanted intraperitoneally in SCID mice. A subset of PDX models demonstrated atypical patterns of dissemination with mediastinal masses, hepatosplenomegaly, and CD45-positive lymphoblastic atypia without ovarian tumor engraftment. Expression of human CD20 but not CD3 supported a B-cell lineage, and EBV genomes were detected in all lymphoproliferative tumors. Immunophenotyping confirmed monoclonal gene rearrangements consistent with B-cell lymphoma, and global gene expression patterns correlated well with other human lymphomas. The ability of rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, to suppress human lymphoproliferation from a patient's ovarian tumor in SCID mice and prevent growth of an established lymphoma led to a practice change with a goal to reduce the incidence of lymphomas. A single dose of rituximab during the primary tumor heterotransplantation process reduced the incidence of CD45-positive cells in subsequent PDX lines from 86.3% (n = 117 without rituximab) to 5.6% (n = 160 with rituximab), and the lymphoma rate declined from 11.1% to 1.88%. Taken together, investigators utilizing PDX models for research should routinely monitor for lymphoproliferative tumors and consider implementing methods to suppress their growth