22 research outputs found

    Dynamic and Static Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder After the First Episode

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    Abstract Few studies have comprehensively examined the profile of cognitive functioning in first episode psychosis patients throughout the lifespan, and from first episode to chronic stage. We assessed functioning in general and specific cognitive functions, comparing both schizophrenia (N = 64) and bipolar I (N = 19) patients to controls (N = 103). Participants were from a population-based, case-control study of first episode psychosis patients, who were followed prospectively up to 10 years post first admission. A cognitive battery was administered at baseline and follow-up. By combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data, we were able to examine the cognitive profile of patients and controls throughout the entire age range of our sample (16ÔÇô65). Schizophrenia patients exhibited widespread declines in IQ, executive function, visual memory, language ability, and verbal knowledge. However, the ages at which these declines occurred differed between functions. Deficits in verbal memory, working memory, processing speed, and visuospatial ability, on the other hand, were present at the first episode, and remained relatively static thereafter. Bipolar I patients also showed declines in IQ, verbal knowledge, and language ability, albeit at different ages to schizophrenia patients and only in verbal functions. Deficits on measures of verbal memory, processing speed, and executive function remained relatively static. Thus, both schizophrenia and bipolar I patients experienced cognitive decline in general and specific functions after the first episode, but the age at which these declines occurred differed between disorder and function. Cognitive remediation efforts may be most fruitful when targeting individual functions during specific time periods throughout adulthood

    Neuropsychological correlates of eye movement abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and their unaffected relatives

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    Impairments on neuropsychological and eye movement tasks have been demonstrated in schizophrenic patients and also reported in their unaffected relatives. However, it is not clear to what extent these phenotypes overlap. This study examined the relationship between specific eye movement and neuropsychological measures. The relationship between performance on eye movement and neuropsychological tasks was measured in 79 schizophrenic patients (63% from multiply affected families), 129 of their healthy first-degree relatives, and 72 normal controls. Antisaccade scores were correlated with most measures of neurocognitive functioning, and this correlation was strongest in schizophrenic patients in all cases. In the schizophrenic patients, but not their relatives or controls, the antisaccade distractibility error (ADE) score correlated significantly with current intelligence, verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall), and associative learning. In the case of crystallised IQ and delayed verbal memory, smaller correlations were present in unaffected relatives, although neither survived Bonferroni correction. Smooth pursuit performance was unrelated to any neuropsychological measure. Our study suggests that antisaccade errors are likely to represent part of a generalized neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenia. ┬ę 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.link_to_subscribed_fulltex

    Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging brain morphometry studies in bipolar disorder

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    Several studies assessing volumetric measurements of regional brain structure in bipolar disorder have been published in recent years, but their results have been inconsistent. Our aim was to complete a meta-analysis of regional morphometry in bipolar disorder as assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We conducted a systematic literature search of MRI studies of bipolar disorder and identified studies which reported volume measurements in a selected number of regions. Twenty-six studies comprising volumetric measurements on up to 404 independent patients with bipolar disorder were included. A meta-analysis was carried out comparing the volumes of regions in bipolar disorder to comparison subjects using a random effects model. Patients with bipolar disorder had enlargement of the right lateral ventricle, but no other regional volumetric deviations which reached significance. Strong heterogeneity existed for several regions, including the third ventricle, left subgenual prefrontal cortex, bilateral amygdala and thalamus. Regional volume of most structures we studied is preserved in bipolar disorder as a whole, which was significantly associated only with right-sided ventricular enlargement. However the extensive heterogeneity detected indicates the need for further studies to establish if consistent regional brain volume deviation exists in bipolar disorder or in specific clinical subsets of the illness.link_to_subscribed_fulltex