180 research outputs found

    Extrasolar Planet Orbits and Eccentricities

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    The known extrasolar planets exhibit many interesting and surprising features--extremely short-period orbits, high-eccentricity orbits, mean-motion and secular resonances, etc.--and have dramatically expanded our appreciation of the diversity of possible planetary systems. In this review we summarize the orbital properties of extrasolar planets. One of the most remarkable features of extrasolar planets is their high eccentricities, far larger than seen in the solar system. We review theoretical explanations for large eccentricities and point out the successes and shortcomings of existing theories.Comment: 10 pages including 3 figures, invited review at 'The Search for Other Worlds', Oct 2003, College Park, M

    Quasar feedback and the origin of radio emission in radio-quiet quasars

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    We conduct kinematic analysis of the SDSS spectra of 568 obscured luminous quasars, with the emphasis on the kinematic structure of the [OIII]5007 emission line. [OIII] emission tends to show blueshifts and blue excess, which indicates that at least part of the narrow-line gas is undergoing an organized outflow. The velocity width containing 90% of line power ranges from 370 to 4780 km/sec, suggesting outflow velocities up to 2000 km/sec. The velocity width of the [OIII] emission is positively correlated with the radio luminosity among the radio-quiet quasars. We propose that radio emission in radio-quiet quasars is due to relativistic particles accelerated in the shocks within the quasar-driven outflows; star formation in quasar hosts is insufficient to explain the observed radio emission. The median radio luminosity of the sample of nu L_nu[1.4GHz] = 10^40 erg/sec suggests a median kinetic luminosity of the quasar-driven wind of L_wind=3x10^44 erg/sec, or about 4% of the estimated median bolometric luminosity L_bol=8x10^45 erg/sec. Furthermore, the velocity width of [OIII] is positively correlated with mid-infrared luminosity, which suggests that outflows are ultimately driven by the radiative output of the quasar. As the outflow velocity increases, some emission lines characteristic of shocks in quasi-neutral medium increase as well, which we take as further evidence of quasar-driven winds propagating into the interstellar medium of the host galaxy. None of the kinematic components show correlations with the stellar velocity dispersions of the host galaxies, so there is no evidence that any of the gas in the narrow-line region of quasars is in dynamical equilibrium with the host galaxy. Quasar feedback appears to operate above the threshold luminosity of L_bol=3x10^45 erg/sec.Comment: 23 pages, accepted to MNRA

    Warm molecular hydrogen in outflows from Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

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    Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) show on average three times more emission in the rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen than expected based on their star formation rates. Using Spitzer archival data we investigate the origin of excess warm H_2 emission in 115 ULIRGs of the IRAS 1 Jy sample. We find a strong correlation between H_2 and [FeII] line luminosities, suggesting that excess H_2 is produced in shocks propagating within neutral or partially ionized medium. This view is supported by the correlations between H_2 and optical line ratios diagnostic of such shocks. The galaxies powered by star formation and those powered by active nuclei follow the same relationship between H_2 and [FeII], with emission line width being the major difference between these classes (about 500 and 1000 km/sec, respectively). We conclude that excess H_2 emission is produced as the supernovae and active nuclei drive outflows into the neutral interstellar medium of the ULIRGs. A weak positive correlation between H_2 and the length of the tidal tails indicates that these outflows are more likely to be encountered in more advanced mergers, but there is no evidence for excess H_2 produced as a result of the collision shocks during the final coalescence.Comment: 16 pages, MNRAS accepted. Complete data tables and Spitzer spectra are available at http://www.pha.jhu.edu/~zakamska/ULIRGS

    Spectroscopic Identification of Type 2 Quasars at Z < 1 in SDSS-III/BOSS

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    The physics and demographics of type 2 quasars remain poorly understood, and new samples of such objects selected in a variety of ways can give insight into their physical properties, evolution, and relationship to their host galaxies. We present a sample of 2758 type 2 quasars at z ≤\leq 1 from the SDSS-III/BOSS spectroscopic database, selected on the basis of their emission-line properties. We probe the luminous end of the population by requiring the rest-frame equivalent width of [OIII] to be > 100 {\AA}. We distinguish our objects from star-forming galaxies and type 1 quasars using line widths, standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams at z < 0.52 and detection of [Ne V]{\lambda}3426{\AA} at z > 0.52. The majority of our objects have [OIII] luminosities in the range 10^8.5-10^10 L⊙_{\odot} and redshifts between 0.4 and 0.65. Our sample includes over 400 type 2 quasars with incorrectly measured redshifts in the BOSS database; such objects often show kinematic substructure or outflows in the [OIII] line. The majority of the sample has counterparts in the WISE survey, with median infrared luminosity {\nu}L{\nu}[12{\mu}m] = 4.2 x 10^44 erg/sec. Only 34 per cent of the newly identified type 2 quasars would be selected by infrared color cuts designed to identify obscured active nuclei, highlighting the difficulty of identifying complete samples of type 2 quasars. We make public the multi-Gaussian decompositions of all [OIII] profiles for the new sample and for 568 type 2 quasars from SDSS I/II, together with non-parametric measures of line profile shapes and identify over 600 candidate double-peaked [OIII] profiles.Comment: 15 pages, 15 figures, 2 tables. Online tables: http://zakamska.johnshopkins.edu/data.ht

    Similarity of ionized gas nebulae around unobscured and obscured quasars

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    Quasar feedback is suspected to play a key role in the evolution of massive galaxies, by removing or reheating gas in quasar host galaxies and thus limiting the amount of star formation. In this paper we continue our investigation of quasar-driven winds on galaxy-wide scales. We conduct Gemini Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of a sample of luminous unobscured (type 1) quasars, to determine the morphology and kinematics of ionized gas around these objects, predominantly via observations of the [O III]5007 emission line. We find that ionized gas nebulae extend out to ~13 kpc from the quasar, that they are smooth and round, and that their kinematics are inconsistent with gas in dynamical equilibrium with the host galaxy. The observed morphological and kinematic properties are strikingly similar to those of ionized gas around obscured (type 2) quasars with matched [O III] luminosity, with marginal evidence that nebulae around unobscured quasars are slightly more compact. Therefore in samples of obscured and unobscured quasars carefully matched in [O III] luminosity we find support for the standard geometry-based unification model of active galactic nuclei, in that the intrinsic properties of quasars, of their hosts and of their ionized gas appear to be very similar. Given the apparent ubiquity of extended ionized regions, we are forced to conclude that either the quasar is at least partially illuminating pre-existing gas or that both samples of quasars are seen during advanced stages of quasar feedback. In the latter case, we may be biased by our [O III]-based selection against quasars in the early "blow-out" phase, for example due to dust obscuration.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures, 2 tables. Published in MNRAS, 201

    Sizes and Kinematics of Extended Narrow-Line Regions in Luminous Obscured AGN Selected by Broadband Images

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    To study the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on the galactic ISM, we present Magellan long-slit spectroscopy of 12 luminous nearby type 2 AGN (L_bol~10^{45.0-46.5} erg/s, z~0.1). These objects are selected from a parent sample of spectroscopically identified AGN to have high [OIII]{\lambda}5007 and WISE mid-IR luminosities and extended emission in the SDSS r-band images, suggesting the presence of extended [OIII]{\lambda}5007 emission. We find spatially resolved [OIII] emission (2-35 kpc from the nucleus) in 8 out of 12 of these objects. Combined with samples of higher luminosity type 2 AGN, we confirm that the size of the narrow-line region (R_NLR) scales with the mid-IR luminosity until the relation flattens at ~10 kpc. Nine out of 12 objects in our sample have regions with broad [OIII] linewidths (w_80>600 km/s), indicating outflows. We define these regions as the kinematically-disturbed region (KDR). The size of the KDR (R_KDR) is typically smaller than R_NLR by few kpc but also correlates strongly with the AGN mid-IR luminosity. Given the unknown density in the gas, we derive a wide range in the energy efficiency {\eta}=dot{E}/L_bol=0.01%-30%. We find no evidence for an AGN luminosity threshold below which outflows are not launched. To explain the sizes, velocity profiles, and high occurrence rates of the outflows in the most luminous AGN, we propose a scenario in which energy-conserving outflows are driven by AGN episodes with ~10^8-year durations. Within each episode the AGN flickers on shorter timescales, with a cadence of ~10^6 year active phases separated by ~10^7 years.Comment: 32 pages, 21 figures, ApJ in revie

    Torus skin outflow in a near-Eddington quasar revealed by spectropolarimetry

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    Even when the direct view toward the active nucleus is obscured, nuclear emission propagating along other directions can scatter off surrounding material, become polarized and reach the observer. Spectropolarimetry can thus be an important tool in investigating the circumnuclear geometry and kinematics of quasars on scales that cannot yet be probed via direct observations. Here we discuss an intriguing class of quasars where the polarization position angle swings by large amounts (90 deg) within an emission line. We investigate a kinematic model in which the scattering dust or electrons are in an axisymmetric outflow. We propagate Stokes parameters in a variety of geometries of emitter, scatterer and observer. We use these models to predict polarization fraction, line profiles and polarization position angles and compare them to observations. We demonstrate that the swinging polarization angle can be a result of the geometry of the outflow and the orientation of the observer. Polarization properties of a near-Eddington extremely red quasar SDSS J1652 can be successfully explained by a model in which the quasar is surrounded by a geometrically thick disk, whose `skin' is outflowing at 1000 km/s and acts as the scatterer on scales of a few tens of pc. The line of sight to the observer in this source is within or close to the skin of the torus, in agreement with multi-wavelength data. Spectropolarimetric data and models presented here strongly support the thick-disk geometry of circumnuclear material suggested by recent numerical simulations of high-rate accretion flows onto black holes.Comment: 17 pages, accepted to MNRA
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