31 research outputs found

    Empirical Relationship between Operational Efficiency and Profitability (Evidence from Pakistan Exploration Sector)

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    This study is a part of our course work. In this study the operational efficiency of firms is checked against profitability. For the purpose of research oil and gas sector of Pakistan stock exchange is selected. Six years data from 2010-2015 is collected through financial reports of companies. Since efficiency can be measured through several financial ratios. In this article total asset turnover, fixed assets turnover, debtors turnover are used as explanatory variables and current ratio and quick ratio as control variables. The profitability of firms is measured through return on equity. Ordinary least square, correlation matrix and descriptive statistics are used to describe the findings of the study and features of the data. The results of the study show that the total assets turnover, debtors turnover and quick ratio have strong negative impacts on the profitability measured by ROE, of firms. The current ratio and fixed asset turnover have positive impacts on the return on equity. The results of the study support the hypothesis that efficiency as measured by (total assets turnover, debtors’ turnover, quick ratio current ratio and fixed asset turnover) has impacts on the profitability of firms

    Statistical analysis of machining parameters on burr formation, surface roughness and energy consumption during milling of aluminium alloy Al 6061-T6

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    Due to the increasing demand for higher production rates in the manufacturing sector, there is a need to manufacture finished or near-finished parts. Burrs and surface roughness are the two most important indicators of the surface quality of any machined parts. In addition to this, there is a constant need to reduce energy consumption during the machining operation in order to reduce the carbon footprint. Milling is one of the most extensively used cutting processes in the manufacturing industry. This research was conducted to investigate the effect of machining parameters on surface roughness, burr width, and specific energy consumption. In the present research, the machining parameters were varied using the Taguchi L9 array design of experiments, and their influence on the response parameters, including specific cutting energy, surface finish, and burr width, was ascertained. The response trends of burr width, energy consumption, and surface roughness with respect to the input parameters were analyzed using the main effect plots. Analysis of variance indicated that the cutting speed has contribution ratios of 55% and 47.98% of the specific cutting energy and burr width on the down-milling side, respectively. On the other hand, the number of inserts was found to be the influential member, with contribution ratios of 68.74% and 35% of the surface roughness and burr width on the up-milling side. The validation of the current design of the experiments was carried out using confirmatory tests in the best and worst conditions of the output parameters.Web of Science1522art. no. 806

    The Cognitive Internet of Things: A Unified Perspective

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    In this article, we present a unified perspective on the cognitive internet of things (CIoT). It is noted that within the CIoT design we observe the convergence of energy harvesting, cognitive spectrum access and mobile cloud computing technologies. We unify these distinct technologies into a CIoT architecture which provides a flexible, dynamic, scalable and robust network design road-map for large scale IoT deployment. Since the prime objective of the CIoT network is to ensure connectivity between things, we identify key metrics which characterize the network design space. We revisit the definition of cognition in the context of IoT networks and argue that both the energy efficiency and the spectrum efficiency are key design constraints. To this end, we define a new performance metric called the ‘overall link success probability’ which encapsulates these constraints. The overall link success probability is characterized by both the self-sustainablitiy of the link through energy harvesting and the availability of spectrum for transmissions. With the help of a reference scenario, we demonstrate that well-known tools from stochastic geometry can be employed to investigate both the node and the network level performance. In particular, the reference scenario considers a large scale deployment of a CIoT network empowered by solar energy harvesting deployed along with the centralized CIoT device coordinators. It is assumed that CIoT network is underlaid with a cellular network, i.e., CIoT nodes share spectrum with mobile users subject to a certain co-existence constraint. Considering the dynamics of both energy harvesting and spectrum sharing, the overall link success probability is then quantified. It is shown that both the self-sustainability of the link, and the availability of transmission opportunites, are coupled through a common parameter, i.e., the node level transmit power. Furthermore, provided the co-existence constraint is satisfied, the link level success in the presence of both the inter-network and intra-network interference is an increasing function of the transmit power. We demonstrate that the overall link level success probability can be maximized by employing a certain optimal transmit power. Characterization of such an optimal operational point is presented. Finally, we highlight some of the future directions which can benefit from the analytical framework developed in this paper

    The Pakistan risk of myocardial infarction study: A resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in south Asia

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    The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing at a greater rate in South Asia than in any other region globally, but there is little direct evidence about its determinants. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) is an epidemiological resource to enable reliable study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of CHD in South Asia. By March 2009, PROMIS had recruited over 5,000 cases of first-ever confirmed acute myocardial infarction (MI) and over 5,000 matched controls aged 30-80 years. For each participant, information has been recorded on demographic factors, lifestyle, medical and family history, anthropometry, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram. A range of biological samples has been collected and stored, including DNA, plasma, serum and whole blood. During its next stage, the study aims to expand recruitment to achieve a total of about 20,000 cases and about 20,000 controls, and, in subsets of participants, to enrich the resource by collection of monocytes, establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines, and by resurveying participants. Measurements in progress include profiling of candidate biochemical factors, assay of 45,000 variants in 2,100 candidate genes, and a genomewide association scan of over 650,000 genetic markers. We have established a large epidemiological resource for CHD in South Asia. In parallel with its further expansion and enrichment, the PROMIS resource will be systematically harvested to help identify and evaluate genetic and other determinants of MI in South Asia. Findings from this study should advance scientific understanding and inform regionally appropriate disease prevention and control strategies

    Access, fronthaul and backhaul networks for 5G and beyond

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    This book provides an overview from both academic and industrial stakeholders of innovative backhaul/fronthaul solutions, covering a wide spectrum of underlying themes ranging from the recent thrust in edge caching for backhaul relaxation to mmWave based fronthauling for radio access networks