48 research outputs found

    Cold hardiness strategy in field collected larvae of Scrobipalpa ocellatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

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    The beet moth, Scrobipalpa ocellatella is recognized as a widespread agricultural pest. Cold hardiness strategy of the beet moth larvae was investigated through monitoring seasonal changes at supercooling points and lower lethal temperatures. Furthermore, the role of microhabitat in winter survival was studied. The mean SCPs of the last instar larvae was not significantly different from November 2010 to April 2011. Mean inoculative freezing point (-8.0 ± 1.44 °C) of the last instar larvae was significantly higher than mean SCP (-14.9 ± 0.93 °C). The cold hardiness of the pest shows seasonal fluctuation in response to reduction of air temperature. A 50% mortality (LT50) occurred at -11 ºC in November and -14 ºC in January and reduced to -18 ºC in February and finally increased to -14.5 ºC in April. Glycerol, sorbitol, trehalose, and myo-inositol were identified components in whole body extracts of S. ocellatella larvae. However, total cryoprotectants could not have significant effects on the cold tolerance. Larvae of S. ocellatella could tolerate subzero temperatures near their SCPs. Our findings show that beet moth larvae utilize moderately chill tolerance strategy during winter

    Comparing the Combined Effect of Garlic and Mint Extract with Metronidazole in Helicobacter Pylori Treatment

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    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common human infections which have been associated with many upper gasterointestinal complications. Different treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication have been used. One of these regimes is the quadruple therapy regimen which metronidazole is one of the medications. In recent years several reports on H. pylori resistance to this antibiotic has been presented. This study was performed to compare the effects of garlic and peppermint extract combination with metronidazole in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. In this randomized double blind clinical trial, 142 patients who were eligible for inclusion in study after completing the questionnaire and consent form were randomly divided into two groups, receiving garlic and peppermint extract or metronidazole. Moreover, for both groups the drugs; amoxicillin, omeprazole and bismuth were also administrated. Two weeks after drug administration completion, urease breath test (UBT) was performed and based on the obtained data, the recovery rate in the two groups were compare using SPSS 16 software T-test and Ki squire. The patients mean age was 43.89± 13.37 years. Evaluating the age and sex factors, we found no significant difference between two groups. Results suggest that although the combination of amoxicillin, omeprazole, bismuth plus garlic and peppermint was not successful in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori such as the quadruple therapy, but less than half of cases lead to eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are inversely associated with body adiposity measurements but the association with bone mass is non-linear in postmenopausal women

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    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased adiposity and decreased bone density. It is not known if vitamin D is linked to adiposity measures and bone mass in postmenopausal Qatar women. We investigated an association between serum vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitmain D (25(OH)D)] and adiposity measurements in postmenopausal women using Qatar Biobank data (n = 935). The post-menopausal status was self-reported by participants. Multivariate adjusted regression was applied to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D and body adiposity markers and bone mass. Serum 25(OH)D was significantly, inversely associated with body mass index (p < 0.0005), waist circumference (0.044), fat mass (p < 0.003), gynoid fat (p < 0.001), and android fat (p < 0.009). Serum 25(OH)D appeared to have an inverse ‘U’ association with several adiposity measures. Overall, body adiposity markers were the lowest in the 4th quartile serum 25(OH)D and significantly lower compared to the 1st quartile serum 25(OH)D. In multivariable adjusted analysis, no association was found between serum 25(OH)D concentration and bone mass when serum 25(OH)D was categorized. In a continuous variable analysis, the association between 25(OH)D and bone mass was significant, non-linear, inverse ‘U’. In conclusion, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was inversely associated with adiposity measures and non-linearly associated to bone mass in postmenopausal Qatari women

    How can nanomicelle-curcumin modulate aluminum phosphide-induced neurotoxicity?: Role of SIRT1/FOXO3 signaling pathway

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    Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is among the most significant causes of brain toxicity and death in many countries. Curcumin (CUR), a major turmeric component, is a potent protective agent against many diseases, including brain toxicity. This study aimed to examine the probable protection potential of nanomicelle curcumin (nanomicelle-CUR) and its underlying mechanism in a rat model of ALP-induced brain toxicity. A total of 36 Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6) and exposed to ALP (2 mg/kg/day, orally) + CUR or nanomicelle-CUR (100 mg/kg/day, orally) for 7 days. Then, they were anesthetized, and brain tissue samples were dissected to evaluate histopathological alterations, oxidative stress biomarkers, gene expression of SIRT1, FOXO1a, FOXO3a, CAT and GPX in brain tissue via hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, biochemical and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods and Real-Time PCR analysis. CUR and nanomicelle-CUR caused significant improvement in ALP-induced brain damage by reducing the MDA levels and induction of antioxidant capacity (TTG, TAC and SOD levels) and antioxidant enzymes (CAT, GPX), modulation of histopathological changes and up-regulation of gene expression of SIRT1 in brain tissue. It was concluded that nanomicelle-CUR treatment ameliorated the harmful effects of ALP-induced brain toxicity by reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, it could be considered a suitable therapeutic choice for ALP poisoning

    Therapeutic effects of Ventolin versus hypertonic saline 3% for acute bronchiolitis in children.

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    BACKGROUND Complications of Ventolin as the most common drug used for bronchiolitis are widely known. The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline 3%, compared with Ventolin, for treatment of acute bronchiolitis in children. METHODS This double-blinded clinical trial study was conducted in Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord, Iran, from 2011 to 2012. A total of 70 patients under the age of two years with bronchiolitis were divided into two groups of 35 each. Ventolin nebulizer and hypertonic saline 3% nebulizer three times per day were administered in the first (Ventolin) and second (Hypersaline) group, respectively. The length of recovery was compared between the two groups. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 22) using chi-square, t-test, paired t-test, and Mann-Whitney. RESULTS The mean±SD length of recovery was 4.14±0.9 and 3.06±0.6 in the Ventolin and hypersaline groups, respectively. The mean duration of recovery was significantly lower in the hypersaline group (p<0.001). CONCLUSION Hypertonic saline 3% nebulizer has more pleasant therapeutic effects on acute bronchiolitis than Ventolin. Therefore, use of hypertonic saline 3% nebulizer is recommended for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in children under two years old

    Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Promotes Human Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation towards Alveolar Progenitors

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    Objective: Efficient production of functional and mature alveolar epithelial is a major challenge for developing any cellreplacement therapy for lung degenerative diseases. The extracellular matrix (ECM) pro-vides a dynamic environmentand mediates cellular responses during development and maintenance of tissue functions. The decellularized ECM(dECM) which retains its native-like structure and bio-chemical composition can provide the induction of embryonicstem cell (ESC) differentiation toward the tissue-specific lineages during in vitro culture. Therefore, the aim of this studywas to evaluate the effect of sheep lung dECM-derived scaffold on differentiation and further maturation of ESC-derivedlung progenitor cells.Materials and Methods: This study was an experimental study. In the first step, a sheep lung was decellularizedto achieve dECM scaffolds and hydrogels. Afterwards, the obtained dECM scaffold was evaluated for collagen andglycosaminoglycan contents, DNA quantification, and its ultrastructure. Next, the three experimental groups: i. Sheeplung dECM-derived scaffold, ii. Sheep lung dECM-derived hydrogel, and iii. Fibronectin-coated plates were comparedin their abilities to induce further differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)-derived definitive endoderm(DE) into lung progenitor cells. The comparison was evaluated by immuno-staining and real-time polymerase chainreaction (PCR) assessments.Results: We found that the dECM-derived scaffold preserved its composition and native porous structures whilelacking nuclei and intact cells. All experimental groups displayed lung progenitor cell differen-tiation as revealed by theRNA and protein expression of NKX2.1, P63 and CK5. DE cells differenti-ated on dECM-derived scaffold and dECMderivedhydrogel showed significant upregulation of SOX9 gene expression, a marker of the distal airway epithelium.DE cells differentiated on the dECM-derived scaffold compared to the two other groups, showed enhanced expressionof SFTPC (type 2 alveolar epithelial [AT2] cell marker), FOXJ1 (ciliated cell marker), and MUC5A (secretory cell marker)genes.Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest that dECM-derived scaffold improves the differentiation of DE cells towardslung alveolar progenitor cells in comparison with dECM-derived hydrogel and fibronectin-coated plates

    Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

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    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are increasingly recognised as global health priorities in view of the preventability of most injuries and the complex and expensive medical care they necessitate. We aimed to measure the incidence, prevalence, and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for TBI and SCI from all causes of injury in every country, to describe how these measures have changed between 1990 and 2016, and to estimate the proportion of TBI and SCI cases caused by different types of injury. METHODS: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016 to measure the global, regional, and national burden of TBI and SCI by age and sex. We measured the incidence and prevalence of all causes of injury requiring medical care in inpatient and outpatient records, literature studies, and survey data. By use of clinical record data, we estimated the proportion of each cause of injury that required medical care that would result in TBI or SCI being considered as the nature of injury. We used literature studies to establish standardised mortality ratios and applied differential equations to convert incidence to prevalence of long-term disability. Finally, we applied GBD disability weights to calculate YLDs. We used a Bayesian meta-regression tool for epidemiological modelling, used cause-specific mortality rates for non-fatal estimation, and adjusted our results for disability experienced with comorbid conditions. We also analysed results on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index, a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility. FINDINGS: In 2016, there were 27·08 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 24·30-30·30 million) new cases of TBI and 0·93 million (0·78-1·16 million) new cases of SCI, with age-standardised incidence rates of 369 (331-412) per 100 000 population for TBI and 13 (11-16) per 100 000 for SCI. In 2016, the number of prevalent cases of TBI was 55·50 million (53·40-57·62 million) and of SCI was 27·04 million (24·98-30·15 million). From 1990 to 2016, the age-standardised prevalence of TBI increased by 8·4% (95% UI 7·7 to 9·2), whereas that of SCI did not change significantly (-0·2% [-2·1 to 2·7]). Age-standardised incidence rates increased by 3·6% (1·8 to 5·5) for TBI, but did not change significantly for SCI (-3·6% [-7·4 to 4·0]). TBI caused 8·1 million (95% UI 6·0-10·4 million) YLDs and SCI caused 9·5 million (6·7-12·4 million) YLDs in 2016, corresponding to age-standardised rates of 111 (82-141) per 100 000 for TBI and 130 (90-170) per 100 000 for SCI. Falls and road injuries were the leading causes of new cases of TBI and SCI in most regions. INTERPRETATION: TBI and SCI constitute a considerable portion of the global injury burden and are caused primarily by falls and road injuries. The increase in incidence of TBI over time might continue in view of increases in population density, population ageing, and increasing use of motor vehicles, motorcycles, and bicycles. The number of individuals living with SCI is expected to increase in view of population growth, which is concerning because of the specialised care that people with SCI can require. Our study was limited by data sparsity in some regions, and it will be important to invest greater resources in collection of data for TBI and SCI to improve the accuracy of future assessments

    Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background: Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods. Methods: We estimated population in 195 locations by single year of age and single calendar year from 1950 to 2017 with standardised and replicable methods. We based the estimates on the demographic balancing equation, with inputs of fertility, mortality, population, and migration data. Fertility data came from 7817 location-years of vital registration data, 429 surveys reporting complete birth histories, and 977 surveys and censuses reporting summary birth histories. We estimated age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs; the annual number of livebirths to women of a specified age group per 1000 women in that age group) by use of spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and used the ASFRs to estimate total fertility rates (TFRs; the average number of children a woman would bear if she survived through the end of the reproductive age span [age 10–54 years] and experienced at each age a particular set of ASFRs observed in the year of interest). Because of sparse data, fertility at ages 10–14 years and 50–54 years was estimated from data on fertility in women aged 15–19 years and 45–49 years, through use of linear regression. Age-specific mortality data came from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 estimates. Data on population came from 1257 censuses and 761 population registry location-years and were adjusted for underenumeration and age misreporting with standard demographic methods. Migration was estimated with the GBD Bayesian demographic balancing model, after incorporating information about refugee migration into the model prior. Final population estimates used the cohort-component method of population projection, with inputs of fertility, mortality, and migration data. Population uncertainty was estimated by use of out-of-sample predictive validity testing. With these data, we estimated the trends in population by age and sex and in fertility by age between 1950 and 2017 in 195 countries and territories. Findings: From 1950 to 2017, TFRs decreased by 49\ub74% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 46\ub74–52\ub70). The TFR decreased from 4\ub77 livebirths (4\ub75–4\ub79) to 2\ub74 livebirths (2\ub72–2\ub75), and the ASFR of mothers aged 10–19 years decreased from 37 livebirths (34–40) to 22 livebirths (19–24) per 1000 women. Despite reductions in the TFR, the global population has been increasing by an average of 83\ub78 million people per year since 1985. The global population increased by 197\ub72% (193\ub73–200\ub78) since 1950, from 2\ub76 billion (2\ub75–2\ub76) to 7\ub76 billion (7\ub74–7\ub79) people in 2017; much of this increase was in the proportion of the global population in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The global annual rate of population growth increased between 1950 and 1964, when it peaked at 2\ub70%; this rate then remained nearly constant until 1970 and then decreased to 1\ub71% in 2017. Population growth rates in the southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania GBD super-region decreased from 2\ub75% in 1963 to 0\ub77% in 2017, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, population growth rates were almost at the highest reported levels ever in 2017, when they were at 2\ub77%. The global average age increased from 26\ub76 years in 1950 to 32\ub71 years in 2017, and the proportion of the population that is of working age (age 15–64 years) increased from 59\ub79% to 65\ub73%. At the national level, the TFR decreased in all countries and territories between 1950 and 2017; in 2017, TFRs ranged from a low of 1\ub70 livebirths (95% UI 0\ub79–1\ub72) in Cyprus to a high of 7\ub71 livebirths (6\ub78–7\ub74) in Niger. The TFR under age 25 years (TFU25; number of livebirths expected by age 25 years for a hypothetical woman who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) in 2017 ranged from 0\ub708 livebirths (0\ub707–0\ub709) in South Korea to 2\ub74 livebirths (2\ub72–2\ub76) in Niger, and the TFR over age 30 years (TFO30; number of livebirths expected for a hypothetical woman ageing from 30 to 54 years who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) ranged from a low of 0\ub73 livebirths (0\ub73–0\ub74) in Puerto Rico to a high of 3\ub71 livebirths (3\ub70–3\ub72) in Niger. TFO30 was higher than TFU25 in 145 countries and territories in 2017. 33 countries had a negative population growth rate from 2010 to 2017, most of which were located in central, eastern, and western Europe, whereas population growth rates of more than 2\ub70% were seen in 33 of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, less than 65% of the national population was of working age in 12 of 34 high-income countries, and less than 50% of the national population was of working age in Mali, Chad, and Niger. Interpretation: Population trends create demographic dividends and headwinds (ie, economic benefits and detriments) that affect national economies and determine national planning needs. Although TFRs are decreasing, the global population continues to grow as mortality declines, with diverse patterns at the national level and across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide transparent and replicable estimates of population and fertility, which can be used to inform decision making and to monitor progress. Funding: Bill &amp; Melinda Gates Foundation

    Population and fertility by age and sex for 195 countries and territories, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background: Population estimates underpin demographic and epidemiological research and are used to track progress on numerous international indicators of health and development. To date, internationally available estimates of population and fertility, although useful, have not been produced with transparent and replicable methods and do not use standardised estimates of mortality. We present single-calendar year and single-year of age estimates of fertility and population by sex with standardised and replicable methods. Methods: We estimated population in 195 locations by single year of age and single calendar year from 1950 to 2017 with standardised and replicable methods. We based the estimates on the demographic balancing equation, with inputs of fertility, mortality, population, and migration data. Fertility data came from 7817 location-years of vital registration data, 429 surveys reporting complete birth histories, and 977 surveys and censuses reporting summary birth histories. We estimated age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs; the annual number of livebirths to women of a specified age group per 1000 women in that age group) by use of spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression and used the ASFRs to estimate total fertility rates (TFRs; the average number of children a woman would bear if she survived through the end of the reproductive age span [age 10–54 years] and experienced at each age a particular set of ASFRs observed in the year of interest). Because of sparse data, fertility at ages 10–14 years and 50–54 years was estimated from data on fertility in women aged 15–19 years and 45–49 years, through use of linear regression. Age-specific mortality data came from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 estimates. Data on population came from 1257 censuses and 761 population registry location-years and were adjusted for underenumeration and age misreporting with standard demographic methods. Migration was estimated with the GBD Bayesian demographic balancing model, after incorporating information about refugee migration into the model prior. Final population estimates used the cohort-component method of population projection, with inputs of fertility, mortality, and migration data. Population uncertainty was estimated by use of out-of-sample predictive validity testing. With these data, we estimated the trends in population by age and sex and in fertility by age between 1950 and 2017 in 195 countries and territories. Findings: From 1950 to 2017, TFRs decreased by 49·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 46·4–52·0). The TFR decreased from 4·7 livebirths (4·5–4·9) to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·5), and the ASFR of mothers aged 10–19 years decreased from 37 livebirths (34–40) to 22 livebirths (19–24) per 1000 women. Despite reductions in the TFR, the global population has been increasing by an average of 83·8 million people per year since 1985. The global population increased by 197·2% (193·3–200·8) since 1950, from 2·6 billion (2·5–2·6) to 7·6 billion (7·4–7·9) people in 2017; much of this increase was in the proportion of the global population in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The global annual rate of population growth increased between 1950 and 1964, when it peaked at 2·0%; this rate then remained nearly constant until 1970 and then decreased to 1·1% in 2017. Population growth rates in the southeast Asia, east Asia, and Oceania GBD super-region decreased from 2·5% in 1963 to 0·7% in 2017, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, population growth rates were almost at the highest reported levels ever in 2017, when they were at 2·7%. The global average age increased from 26·6 years in 1950 to 32·1 years in 2017, and the proportion of the population that is of working age (age 15–64 years) increased from 59·9% to 65·3%. At the national level, the TFR decreased in all countries and territories between 1950 and 2017; in 2017, TFRs ranged from a low of 1·0 livebirths (95% UI 0·9–1·2) in Cyprus to a high of 7·1 livebirths (6·8–7·4) in Niger. The TFR under age 25 years (TFU25; number of livebirths expected by age 25 years for a hypothetical woman who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) in 2017 ranged from 0·08 livebirths (0·07–0·09) in South Korea to 2·4 livebirths (2·2–2·6) in Niger, and the TFR over age 30 years (TFO30; number of livebirths expected for a hypothetical woman ageing from 30 to 54 years who survived the age group and was exposed to current ASFRs) ranged from a low of 0·3 livebirths (0·3–0·4) in Puerto Rico to a high of 3·1 livebirths (3·0–3·2) in Niger. TFO30 was higher than TFU25 in 145 countries and territories in 2017. 33 countries had a negative population growth rate from 2010 to 2017, most of which were located in central, eastern, and western Europe, whereas population growth rates of more than 2·0% were seen in 33 of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, less than 65% of the national population was of working age in 12 of 34 high-income countries, and less than 50% of the national population was of working age in Mali, Chad, and Niger. Interpretation: Population trends create demographic dividends and headwinds (ie, economic benefits and detriments) that affect national economies and determine national planning needs. Although TFRs are decreasing, the global population continues to grow as mortality declines, with diverse patterns at the national level and across age groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide transparent and replicable estimates of population and fertility, which can be used to inform decision making and to monitor progress
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