111 research outputs found

    An Agent-Based Simulation Model for Understanding Diffusion Dynamics of Open-Source (OS) Software in the Presence of Upgrades

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    There is an increasing interest in the evolution of open-source software (OS). Researchers as well as practitioners are trying to better understand factors that impact the diffusion of OS. This paper presents an agent-based model of OS diffusion. Specifically, we investigate how software upgrade cycle affects firms’ OS adoption. In addition, we also incorporate factors such as variability in OS support costs, interoperability issues and network structure that have not been systematically studied in prior OS research. Simulation results demonstrate the individual and interaction effects of these variables on the rate of OS diffusion. High variability in OS support costs and more frequent introduction of major upgrades encourage OS diffusion. The rate of diffusion is also influenced by the degree of cliquishness in the network structure. Interoperability issues hinder OS diffusion when proprietary software (PS) is currently the dominant standard. However, if other factors encourage OS diffusion and a critical mass of OS adopters is reached, then interoperability issues encourage OS diffusion. The impact of interactions between network structures and other factors on diffusion dynamics is also illustrated

    Screening of maize germplasm for Turcicum leaf blight resistance

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    : A study was conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 at Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Campus Srinagar with the objective of screening sixty maize genotypes against Turcicum leaf blight caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs. Field experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. In order to ensure establishment of infection, artificial inoculation of E. turcicum on test genotypes was made twice at 30 and 40 days after sowing with two different methods of inoculation (spraying on foliage of maize with spore suspension of pathogen @ 5x104 spores/ml at 30 DAS and by whorl drop inoculation of pathogen multiplies on sorghum grains at 40 DAS). Disease severity on test entries was scored at silk drying stage and studies revealed that two inbred lines, viz., NAI-112 and NAI-147, and one hybrid, viz., HQPM-1 were found resistant with pooled disease intensity of 4.12 per cent, 4.04 per cent and 4.38 per cent, respectively. Four inbred lines, viz., KDM 381 A, KDM 918 A, NAI-152 and NAI-167 were found susceptible with pooled disease intensity of 52.82 per cent, 51.02 per cent, 58.58 per cent and 61.33 per cent, respectively. The remaining genotypes were moderately resistant to moderately susceptible

    Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for Prevention of Spinal Cord Ischemia in Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Surgery-Pros and Cons

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    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) carries a risk of spinal cord ischemia (SCI) which exerts a devastating impact on patient\u27s quality of life and life expectancy. Although routine prophylactic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage is not unequivocally supported by current data, several studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes. Patients at high risk for SCI following TEVAR likely will benefit from prophylactic CSF drains. However, the intervention is not risk free, and thorough risk/benefit analysis should be individualized to each patient

    Trends in breeding oat for nutritional grain quality - An overview

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    Oat is an economically important crop and ranks sixth in world cereal production after maize, wheat, rice, barley and sorghum. It has been primarily utilized as livestock feed. However, the utilization of oats for human consumption has increased progressively, owing to its dietary and health benefits which relies mainly on the total dietary fibre and ?-glucan content, which significantly reduces postprandial blood glucose, insulin and blood lipids, especially serum total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Henceforth, enhancing Oat b-glucan content forhuman consumption is desirable. As it is a polygenic trait controlled mainly by genes with additive effects, phenotypic selection for greater b-glucan content would be effective for developing cultivars with elevated b-glucan contents. Oat b-glucan concentration has been found to be positively correlated with protein content and negatively correlated with oil content. ?-glucan yield (i.e., Product of grain yield and ?-glucan content) has been found to correlate positively with both grain yield (r = 0.92) and ?-glucan content (r = 0.66). Hence, this nutritional oat grain quality has been improved through selection for improved grain yield as they both increase simultaneously. Among wild accessions, A. atlantica genotypes have high ?-glucan content (2·2–11·3%) and have been used in breeding programmes for increasing the ?-glucan content of adapted elite local germplasm. Besides conventional breeding approaches, molecular breeding approaches have made possible to identify several molecular markers linked to ?-glucan rich regions across oat genome hence enabling mapping and dissection of ?-glucan rich genomic regions and accelerating the improvement in nutritional grain quality

    Variation in fish catches from the continental shelf between Quilon and Gulf of Mannar and its relation to oceanographic conditions during the southwest monsoon period

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    The present paper is based on the fishing results of FORV Sagar Sampada during July-August, 1987 along the southwest coast of India. The fish fauna of the Quilon Bank and Wadge Bank has a dominant nemipterid element and the Gulf of Mannar area has a dominant population of barracudas. Nemipterids constituted 88.2 and 64.4% of the total trawl catch from the Quilon Bank and Wadge Bank respectively

    Mangostins stimulate glucose uptake and inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

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    Garcinia mangostana (Guttiferae) has interesting biological activities with potential medicinal application. α-mangostin and β-mangostin are the most abundant xanthones isolated from the species. The paper reported the inhibitory effect of the compounds on triglyceride formation, glucose uptake stimulation and gene expression effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Evaluation of the effect of the compounds on triglyceride accumulation was examined by Oil red O staining. The result showed that all compounds inhibited lipid accumulation on 3T3-L1 adipocytes at concentration of 50 μM (P < 0.05) compared to MDI treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Effect of the cells on uptake of 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose was significantly improved by increasing the concentration of the compounds. Analysis of gene expressions by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the compounds inhibited the expression of early adipogenic transcription factor (PPARγ). In addition, the compounds enhanced the expression and plasma membrane translocation of GLUT4 in mature adipocytes. Analysis by using the adipolysis kit showed that α-mangostin particularly increases the free fatty acid release by stimulating the lipolysis pathway. Therefore, these results suggested that α-mangostin and β-mangostin have been found to have a beneficial action in diabetic complications (antiobesity effect) via stimulation of GLUT4 expression and inhibition of PPARγ expression

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterial Consortium: A Sustainable Crop Production Strategy

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    The prime concern for sustainable production is linked with biotic and abiotic pressures in environment as it impedes yield by producing ROS, which damage cell organelles and other biomolecules. Also the population is increasing at an alarming rate along with the climate change thereby leading to food insecurity. The only alternative to food security is adoption of Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), as it provides an environmental-friendly and green substitute to chemical substance and traditional agricultural practices to achieve sustainable agriculture by enhancing plant growth and resistance to various pressures. The functions carried out by these microbes in agriculture include nutrient uptake, resistance of host plant to various animate and inanimate pressures. These surround the roots and affect the growth and development through various direct and indirect ways. Furthermore, they have the ability to combat harmful influence of pressures like salinity, drought, heavy metals, floods, and other stresses on plants by inducing the production of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. To meet the increasing demand for food, and to evade environmental degradation, the utilization of PGPR consortium is a sustainable and ecofriendly technique to ameliorate the effectiveness of resource utilization and enhancing production under extreme climatic conditions and under increasing population

    Transgenesis: An efficient tool in mulberry breeding

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    Genetic engineering is the most potent biotechnological approach dealing with transfer of specially constructed gene assemblies through various transformation techniques. Tools of recombinant DNA technology facilitated development of transgenic plants.  The plants obtained through genetic engineering contain a gene or genes usually from an unrelated organisms, and are known as transgenic plants. The combined use of recombinant DNA technology, gene transfer methods and tissue culture techniques has  led to the efficient transformation and production of transgenics in a wide variety of crop plants. In fact transgenesis has emerged as a novel tool for carrying out “single gene breeding” or transgenic breeding of crop plants. Identification, isolation and cloning of resistant genes is the prerequisite for development of transgenic plants for disease resistance. Identification of resistance genes on the basis of amino acid sequence, conservation enables plant breeder to monitor resistance gene segregation using  appropriate DNA probe intend of testing progeny for disease resistance and susceptibility. Significant developments in plant  genetic modification have been achieved in the last 15 years. Some of the success include herbicide tolerant corn, cotton,  soyabeen and papaya; virus resistant corn, potato, cotton among others. In mulberry, little work has been carried out at Delhi University (south campus). They have developed drought and salinity tolerent transgenic mulberry through Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The overexpression of HVA1 gene from barley generates tolerence to salinity and water stress in  transgenic mulberry (Morus indica).Keywords: Transgenic plant, mulberry, resistance, salinity

    Effect of exogenous application of nicotinic acid on morpho-physiological characteristics of Hordeum vulgare L. under water stress

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    Abiotic stresses, such as high temperature and drought conditions, greatly influence the development of plants and the quality and quantity of products. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop production is largely impacted by drought, affecting growth, yield, and ultimately the productivity of the crop in hot arid/semi-arid conditions. The current pot experiment was directed to observe the outcome of nicotinic acid (NA) treatments on barley’s physiological, biochemical, and production attributes at two capacity levels, i.e., 100% normal range and withholding water stress. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used during the experimentation with the two-factor factorial arrangement. NA was applied exogenously by two different methods, i.e., foliar and soil application (fertigation). NA solution contained various application levels, such as T1 = control, foliar applications (T2 = 0.7368 gL−1, T3 = 1.477 gL−1, T4 = 2.2159 gL−1), and soil applications (T5 = 0.4924 gL−1, T6 = 0.9848 gL−1, and T7 = 1.4773 gL−1). Results depicted that, overall, foliar treatments showed better effects than control and soil treatments. Plant growth was preeminent under T4 treatment, such as plant height (71.07 cm), relative water content (84.0%), leaf water potential (39.73-MPa), leaf area index (36.53 cm2), biological yield (15.10 kgha−1), grain yield (14.40 kgha−1), harvest index (57.70%), catalase (1.54 mmolg−1FW−1), peroxidase (1.90 g−1FWmin−1), and superoxide dismutase (52.60 µgFW−1) were superior under T4 treatment. Soil plant analysis development (54.13 µgcm−2) value was also higher under T4 treatment and lowest under T7 treatment. In conclusion, NA-treated plants were more successful in maintaining growth attributes than non-treated plants; therefore, the NA foliar treatment at the rate of 2.2159 gL−1 is suggested to find economical crop yield under drought conditions. The present study would contribute significantly to improving the drought tolerance potential of barley through exogenous NA supply in water deficit areas
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