677 research outputs found

    Χαϱακτηϱισµών αδϱονικών πιδάκων από συγκϱούσεις πϱωτονίων στο πείϱαµα CMS του LHC

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    Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο--Μεταπτυχιακή Εργασία. Διεπιστημονικό-Διατμηματικό Πρόγραμμα Μεταπτυχιακών Σπουδών (Δ.Π.Μ.Σ.) “Φυσική και Τεχνολογικές Εφαρμογές

    Sex and the single embryo: early deveopment in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>In embryos the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MTZ) integrates post-transcriptional regulation of maternal transcripts with transcriptional activation of the zygotic genome. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this event are being clarified in <it>Drosophila melanogaster</it>, little is know about the embryogenic processes in other insect species. The recent publication of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryos of the global pest species <it>Ceratitis capitata </it>(medfly) has enabled the investigation of embryogenesis in this species and has allowed a comparison of the embryogenic processes in these two related dipteran species, <it>C. capitata </it>and <it>D. melanogaster</it>, that shared a common ancestor 80-100 mya.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Using a novel PCR-based sexing method, which takes advantage of a putative LTR retrotransposon MITE insertion on the medfly Y chromosome, the transcriptomes of individual early male and female embryos were analysed using RT-PCR. This study is focused on two crucial aspects of the onset of embryonic development: sex determination and cellular blastoderm formation. Together with the three known medfly genes (<it>Cctransformer</it>, <it>Cctransformer2 </it>and <it>Ccdoublesex</it>), the expression patterns of other medfly genes that are similar to the <it>D. melanogaster </it>sex-determination genes (<it>sisterlessA, groucho, deadpan, Sex-lethal, female lethal d, sans fille </it>and <it>intersex</it>) and four cellular blastoderm formation genes (<it>Rho1, spaghetti squash, slow-as-molasses </it>and <it>serendipity-α</it>) were analyzed, allowing us to sketch a preliminary outline of the embryonic process in the medfly. Furthermore, a putative homologue of the <it>Zelda </it>gene has been considered, which in <it>D. melanogaster </it>encodes a DNA-binding factor responsible for the maternal-to-zygotic transition.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our novel sexing method facilitates the study of i) when the MTZ transition occurs in males and females of <it>C. capitata</it>, ii) when and how the maternal information of "female-development" is reprogrammed in the embryos and iii) similarities and differences in the regulation of gene expression in <it>C. capitata </it>and <it>D. melanogaster</it>. We suggest a new model for the onset of the sex determination cascade in the medfly: the maternally inherited <it>Cctra </it>transcripts in the female embryos are insufficient to produce enough active protein to inhibit the male mode of <it>Cctra </it>splicing. The slow rate of development and the inefficiency of the splicing mechanism in the pre-cellular blastoderm facilitates the male-determining factor (M) activity, which probably acts by inhibiting CcTRA protein activity.</p

    Factors associated with the quality of life of family carers of people with dementia: a systematic review

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    Introduction: Family carers of people with dementia are their most important support in practical, personal and economic terms. Carers are vital to maintaining the quality of life (QOL) of people with dementia. This review aims to identify factors related to the QOL of family carers of people with dementia. Methods: Searches on terms including ‘carers’, ‘dementia’, ‘family’ and ‘quality of life’ in research databases. Findings were synthesised inductively, grouping factors associated with carer QOL into themes. Results: 909 abstracts were identified. Following screening, lateral searches and quality appraisal, 41 studies (n=5,539) were included for synthesis. Ten themes were identified: demographics; carer-patient relationship; dementia characteristics; demands of caring; carer health; carer emotional wellbeing; support received; carer independence; carer self-efficacy; and future. Discussion: The quality and level of evidence supporting each theme varied. We need further research on what factors predict carer QOL in dementia and how to measure it

    The whole genome sequence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), reveals insights into the biology and adaptive evolution of a highly invasive pest species

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    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a major destructive insect pest due to its broad host range, which includes hundreds of fruits and vegetables. It exhibits a unique ability to invade and adapt to ecological niches throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, though medfly infestations have been prevented and controlled by the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated pest management programs (IPMs). The genetic analysis and manipulation of medfly has been subject to intensive study in an effort to improve SIT efficacy and other aspects of IPM control

    Measurement of b jet shapes in proton-proton collisions at root s=5.02 TeV

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    We present the first study of charged-hadron production associated with jets originating from b quarks in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. The data sample used in this study was collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 27.4 pb(-1). To characterize the jet substructure, the differential jet shapes, defined as the normalized transverse momentum distribution of charged hadrons as a function of angular distance from the jet axis, are measured for b jets. In addition to the jet shapes, the per-jet yields of charged particles associated with b jets are also quantified, again as a function of the angular distance with respect to the jet axis. Extracted jet shape and particle yield distributions for b jets are compared with results for inclusive jets, as well as with the predictions from the pythia and herwig++ event generators.Peer reviewe

    Search for new particles in events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV