14 research outputs found

    Reliability and Validity of the Malaysian English Version of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorder (M-English DC/TMD)

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    This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of Graded Chronic Pain Scale 2.0 (GCPS 2.0) and Jaw Functional Limitation Scale-20 (JFLS-20) of the Malaysian English version of Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (M-English DC/TMD). GCPS 2.0 and JFLS-20 underwent psychometric analysis involving content, face, criterion, and construct (exploratory factor analysis (EFA), convergent, discriminant, known group) validity including internal and test-retest reliability on 208 samples. The construct validity was assessed against 14 hypotheses and non-parametric statistics were used to assess the data. The GCPS 2.0 and JFLS-20 had high internal consistencies (α = 0.85 and 0.96) with an intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.95 and 0.97, respectively. The content validity index for GCPS 2.0 and JFLS-20 were 0.87 and 0.95, respectively. The EFA of GCPS 2.0 identified one factor whereas three factors were identified for JFLS-20. Both instruments had moderate to strong positive correlation with other instruments when assessing for concurrent (r = 0.75–0.80, p < 0.01) and convergent (r = 0.58–0.70, p < 0.01) validity, while moderate to high negative correlation (r = −0.86–−0.68, p < 0.01) against the global self-rating oral health items. Based on the study, GCPS 2.0 and JFLS-20 of the M-English DC/TMD proven to be reliable and valid for use in the Malaysian population with TMD

    Minimal Important Difference of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire Following Orthodontic Treatment: A Cohort Study

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    (1) This study aimed to do a longitudinal validation of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ) and determine its minimal important difference (MID) following orthodontic treatment; (2) 42 adolescents (11 to 18 years old) were recruited for treatment with fixed appliances and the participants answered the Malaysian PIDAQ prior to treatment (T0), mid-treatment (T1), and post-treatment (T2), plus a global health transition scale at T1 and T2. Data analyses included repeated measures ANOVA and paired sample t-tests. Test–retest was administered 2 to 6 weeks from T0; (3) The final sample comprised 37 subjects (response rate = 88.1%). The 95% limits of agreement were −10.3 to 8.5 points. In the anchor-based approach, those who experienced the smallest changes by reporting their dental aesthetics as “a little improved” had an insignificant PIDAQ score change of −5.3 at T1. At T2, the PIDAQ scores of those in this category were reduced significantly (mean change = −26.2; effect size (ES) = 1.0; p = 0.34). In the distribution-based approach, standardized PIDAQ scores were significantly reduced, with medium (0.7) to large (1.5) ES at T1 and T2, respectively; (4) The PIDAQ can detect orthodontic-related changes in patients’ psychosocial well-being. The post-treatment MID is 26 scale points with large ES

    Short Versions of the Arabic Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire for Yemeni Adolescents: Cross-Sectional Derivation and Validation

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    Objectives: To shorten the 24-item Arabic Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ(A)) for adolescents in Yemen. Material and methods: Two shortening methods derived six-item and nine-item versions: the item impact method selected items with the highest impact scores as rated by 30 participants in each subscale; and the regression method was applied using data of 385 participants from the PIDAQ(A) validity study, with the total PIDAQ(A) score as the dependent variable, and its individual items as the independent variables. The four derived versions were assessed for validity and reliability. Results: The means of the six-item and nine-item short versions of both methods were close. Cronbach’s alpha values extended from 0.90 to 0.92 (intra-class correlations = 0.85–0.88). In criterion validity, strong significant correlations were detected between scores of all short versions and the 24-item PIDAQ(A) score (0.96–0.98; p < 0.001). Construct validity displayed significant associations among all short versions and self-perceived dental appearance rank and self-perceived need for orthodontic braces rank (p < 0.05). Mean scores of all short versions were significantly different between adolescents with severe malocclusion and those with slight malocclusion in discriminant validity tests. In conclusion, all PIDAQ(A) short versions are valid and reliable

    Nicotine Dependence among Adolescents Single and Dual Cigarette Users

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    The prevalence of concurrent use of combustible and electronic cigarettes (dual-use) is on the rise among Malaysian adolescents. This study compares nicotine dependence among exclusive cigarette users, e-cigarette users, and dual adolescent users. A total of 227 adolescent smokers completed a self-administrated questionnaire with items based on Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) incorporated. Endorsement of at least one HONC item indicates nicotine dependence. Exhaled carbon monoxide readings and salivary cotinine data were also collected. Over half (52.9%) of the participants were exclusive e-cigarette users (EC). The prevalence of exclusive conventional cigarette smokers (CC) and dual users was 11.9% and 35.2%, respectively. Adolescents who have mothers with secondary school education were more likely to become addicted to nicotine (Adjusted Odd Ratio (aOR) = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.17–6.32). Adolescents’ “mother’s education” level predicted nicotine dependence. This highlighted the need to target families within the identified demography with a more supportive anti-tobacco program

    Impacts of Self Perceived Malocclusion on the Oral Health Related Quality of Life of Young Adults

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    Self-awareness of poorly arranged teeth can influence the quality of life. This study aimed to report the impacts of self-perceived malocclusion in young adults and the association between demographic characteristics and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL). In this cross-sectional study, six-hundred-forty-three subjects from Selangor, Malaysia selected using a multistage sampling technique answered the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics (PIDA) questionnaire and self-rated their dental appearance using the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Data were analyzed using multifactorial ANOVA to identify the association between demographic characteristics and total PIDA score. Five-hundred-twenty-four subjects (81.5%) completed the questionnaires. Overall, 87.8% had impacts on their OHRQoL. Psychological impact was the most impacted domain (75.8%), followed by dental self-confidence (59.4%), social impact (48.9%) and aesthetic concern (22.1%). 16.8% reported significant impacts on all domains. Their mean PIDA score was 36.3 (SD 17.1). Prevalence, extent and severity of impacts were higher amongst those with self-perceived malocclusion. Gender, ethnicity, and self-perceived malocclusion status were associated with PIDA score (p < 0.05). Sub-urban and rural females had significantly higher PIDA scores than sub-urban and rural males. In conclusion, majority of Malaysian young adults especially those with self-perceived malocclusion were impacted by their dental aesthetics

    Dental caries among 12-year-old children after discontinuation of water fluoridation in Pahang, Malaysia

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    Background: Water fluoridation (WF) has been a national caries prevention program in Malaysia since 1972. However, between July 2012 and December 2013, WF was discontinued in Pahang. This study aimed to compare caries prevalence and mean caries experience among Malaysian children in WF and WF-ceased areas and determine its associated risk factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 12-year-old schoolchildren in two Malaysian states: Pahang (WF-ceased) and Perak (WF-continued). Dental caries was examined using ICDAS criteria, and a questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Associations between independent variables and dental caries were analyzed by simple logistic regression and general linear model analyses. Results: Dental caries (D4-6MFT) was significantly higher among children in WF-ceased areas than in communities where WF continued. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that exposure to WF remains a strong predictor of low caries experience among the study population. Moreover, children with irregular toothbrushing frequency before sleep and whose parents have lower educational attainment are associated with higher caries experience. Conclusion: Caries prevalence and mean caries experience were significantly higher among children in WF-ceased areas than in communities where WF continued. Multivariate analysis revealed that several factors were associated with caries experience

    Prevalence, Extent and Severity of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics among Malaysian Adolescents

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    This study aimed to assess the prevalence, extent and severity of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics (PIDA) among Malaysian adolescents especially those with self-perceived malocclusion, and to determine if age and gender affected their PIDA. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on 12-17 year old schoolchildren from schools across Malaysia selected via a multi-stage sampling method. The questionnaire included the Malaysian Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics (Malaysian PIDA) questionnaire and the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC). The Malaysian PIDA measured four domains: (Dental Self Confidence, 6 items; Social Impact, 8 items; Psychological Impact, 6 items; and Aesthetic Concern, 2 items) to assess impacts on the oral health-related quality of life specific to malocclusion. While the IOTN-AC comprised a 10-point photographic scale to assess self-perceived malocclusion. Data analysis using SPSS version 20 was involved using complete data on 901 participants. The prevalence of Pion was 90.0% while prevalence associated with self-perceived malocclusion was 96.0%. Impact of dental aesthetics was highest on the psychological wellbeing of the adolescents, followed by their self-confidence. In terms of the extent of impact, 14.0% reported significant impact on all four domains and 192% were associated with self-perceived malocclusion. The prevalence of impacts was higher in younger adolescents and females. In terms of the extent and severity of impacts, younger adolescents reported higher impacts but with small effect sizes, while differences between boys and girls were not significant

    Oral health-related quality of life among 11-12year old indigenous children in Malaysia

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    BackgroundPoor oral health among Malaysian indigenous Orang Asli (OA) children may impact on their daily performances.AimTo assess the oral health status, related behaviours, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among OA children in Cameron Highlands (CH), Malaysia, and to identify the predictor(s) for poor OHRQoL.DesignThis was a cross-sectional study involving 249, 11-12year old OA children from 4 OA primary schools in CH. The children completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising information on socio-demographics, oral health-related behaviours, and the Malay Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Malay Child-OIDP) index followed by an oral examination. Data were entered into the SPSS version 23.0 software. Non-parametric tests and multiple logistic regression were used for data analysis.ResultsThe response rate was 91.2% (n=227/249). The prevalence of caries was 61.6% (mean DMFT=1.36, mean dft=1.01) and for gingivitis was 96.0%. Despite the majority reported brushing their teeth >= 2x/day (83.7%) with fluoride toothpaste (80.2%), more than two-thirds chewed betel nut >= 1/day (67.4%). Majority of the children (97.8%) had a dental check-up once a year. Nearly three-fifths (58.6%) reported experiencing oral impacts on their daily performances in the past 3months (mean score=5.45, SD=8.5). Most of the impacts were of very little to moderate levels of impact intensity with 90.2% had up to 4 daily performances affected. Most of the impacts were on eating (35.2%), cleaning teeth (22.0%) and relaxing activities (15.9%). Caries in primary teeth is associated with oral impacts among the OA children.ConclusionsThe 11-12year old OA children in Cameron Highland had high prevalence of caries and gingivitis with the majority chewed betel nut regularly. Caries in primary teeth is associated with poor OHRQoL. Future programmes should target younger age group children to promote positive oral hygiene practices, reduce caries, and improve quality of life

    The impact of clinical competency test on dental students' clinical skills learning and patient care

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    Clinical Competency Test (CCT) has been regarded as the contemporary method to assess dental students' clinical skills in integrated dental curriculum in dental schools worldwide. It is an independent test for students to carry out specific clinical procedures on patients in the clinic. Each year, students are required to undertake CCTs on different clinical procedures based on the levels of clinical skills relevant to that year (Year 111 -V) . As dentistry Is a clinical profession, students are required to pass all CCTs In the respective year before they are eligible to sit for final examinations. Otherwise, they will be required to repeat the year. In UM, students sit for five CCTs In Year Ill, four CCTs In Year IV, and six CCTs In Year V

    Validation and reliability of the translated Malay version of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire for adolescents

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    Background: This paper describes the cross-cultural adaptation of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) into Malay version (Malay PIDAQ), an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instrument specific for orthodontics for Malaysian adolescents between 12 and 17 years old. Methods: The PIDAQ was cross-culturally adapted into Malay version by forward- and backward-translation processes, followed by psychometric validations. After initial investigation of the conceptual suitability of the measure for the Malaysian population, the PIDAQ was translated into Malay, pilot tested and back translated into English. Psychometric properties were examined across two age groups (319 subjects aged 12-14 and 217 subjects aged 15-17 years old) for factor structure, internal consistency, reproducibility, discriminant and construct validity, criterion validity, and assessment of floor and ceiling effects. Results: Fit indices by confirmatory factor analysis showed good fit statistics (comparative fit index = 0.936, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.064) and invariance across age groups. Internal consistency and reproducibility tests were satisfactory (Cronbach's α = 0.71-0.91; intra-class correlations = 0.72-0.89). Significant differences in Malay PIDAQ mean scores were observed between subjects with severe malocclusion and those with slight malocclusion based on a self-rated and an investigator-rated malocclusion index, for all subscales and all age groups (p < 0.05). Construct validity of the Malay PIDAQ subscales with those who rated themselves with excellent to poor dental appearance and those who felt they needed or did not need braces, showed significant associations for all age groups (p < 0.05). Criterion validity also showed significant association between the Malay PIDAQ scores with those with and without impact on daily activities attributed to malocclusion. There were no ceiling effects detected but floor effects were detected for the Aesthetic Concern subscale. Conclusion: The study has provided initial evidence for the validity and reliability of the Malay PIDAQ to assess the impact of malocclusion on the OHRQoL of 12-17 year old Malaysian adolescents
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