43 research outputs found

    SnO2 THIN FILM DEPOSITION FOR N-TYPE AND WINDOW OF CIS SOLAR CELL

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    SnO2 THIN FILM DEPOSITION FOR N-TYPE AND WINDOW OF CIS SOLAR CELL. SnO2 thin film deposition on glass substrate has been carried out using DC sputtering technique. This research has purpose to find the three sputtering parameters such as deposition time, pressure of Ar gas and substrate temperature. By controlling these parameters, it is expected that the SnO2 thin film has low resistivity and high transmittance which can be used for the CIS solar cell. Ar ion bombarded on SnO2 target, placed on the vacuum chamber, hence the sputtered SnO2 target atom forms the SnO2 thin film on glass substrate. The resistivity and conduction type were measured using four point probe, the transmittance by UV-Vis and the crystal structure by XRD. The microstructure and thickness were observed using SEM, while the chemical composition using EDS. The results show that the lowest resistivity with N conduction type is 5 x 10-2 ohm.cm, the highest transmittance is 83.59 % at λ = 600 nm, the grains are distributed homogeneously, the thickness of thin film is 1 μm, the crystal structure of SnO2 thin film is tetragonal while composition of thin film consists of 38.42 % Sn atom, 60.96 % O atom, and 2.61 % Fe atom

    THE ROOT CAUSES AND NEXUS OF MILITANT ISLAMIC MOVEMENTS IN INDONESIA: CASE STUDIES OF DARUL ISLAM AND JEMAAH ISLAMIYAH

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    Many scholars believe that every religion has its peaceful interpretation as well as violent practices. Yet, this article elaborates more on the Islamic radical movements in Indonesia, particularly on the questions of what factors have triggered them to conduct such violence, how they linked each other and what action should be taken by the Indonesian government to counter-terrorism. To answer the question, the paper will focus on the ideology part and organization network of Darul Islam (DI) and Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), which shared similar ideology, network and methods of recruitment. Authors argue that ideology and organization become vital elements for DI and JI, in which the government, coupled with all stakeholders, should pay more attention if they want to eradicate violence in the name of religion. Although there is “no prescription fits all†in eradicating terrorism, the ability to understand the root causes and organization network of terrorism in Indonesia will help the government and all stakeholders to establish a proper strategy.   Key words: Counter-terrorism, salafi jihadism, Darul Islam, Jemaah Islamiyah     Abstrak   Banyak pengamat percaya bahwa setiap agama mengandung interpretasi damai sekaligus juga tindak kekerasan. Namun, artikel ini akan mengulas lebih banyak tentang gerakan radikal Islam di Indonesia, terutama yang terkait dengan faktor-faktor apa saja yang mendorong mereka melakukan aksi kekerasan, bagaimana kelompok-kelompok tersebut saling memiliki keterkaitan dan tindakan apa yang perlu diambil oleh pemerintah Indonesia dalam melakukan kontra-terorisme. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut, paper ini akan menjelaskan ideologi dan jaringan organisasi dari Darul Islam (DI) dan Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), di mana keduanya memiliki kemiripan termasuk juga dalam metode rekrutmen. Penulis berpendapat bahwa ideologi dan organisasi merupakan elemen penting bagi DI dan JI. Oleh karena itu, pemerintah dan seluruh elemen masyarakat harus memperhatikan hal ini jika ingin memberantas kekerasan atas nama agama. Walaupun tidak ada “resep ampuh†yang dapat mengatasi terorisme, kemampuan untuk memahami akar permasalahan dan jaringan organisasi kelompok terorisme di Indonesia akan membantu pemerintah dan seluruh elemen masyarakat untuk menyusun strategi yang tepat.   Kata Kunci: Counter-terrorism, salafi jihadisme, Darul Islam, Jemaah Islamiya

    TWITTER SENTIMENT ANALYSIS PEDULILINDUNGI APPLICATION USING NAÏVE BAYES AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

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    The PeduliLindungi application is an application launched by the government during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the aim of helping government agencies carry out digital tracking to monitor the public, as an effort to prevent the spread of the Corona virus. Many people express their opinions on the PeduliLindung application on social media, one of which is through Twitter. To improve the performance of the application, of course, need input or complaints from users, opinions from the public on Twitter about the PeduliLindungi application can be input to improve or improve the performance of the application. Sentiment analysis is carried out to see how the public's sentiment towards the PeduliLindung application is, and these sentiments will be categorized into positive sentiment and negative sentiment, this sentiment can later be used as evaluation material for application development. This study aims to see and compare the accuracy of two classification methods, Naïve Bayes and Support Vector Machine in the classification process of sentiment analysis. The data used are 4636 tweets with the keyword " PeduliLindungi". The data obtained then goes to the pre-processing stage before going to the classification stage. The results obtained after classifying using the Naïve Bayes method and the Support Vector Machine show that the Support Vector Machine method has a higher accuracy of 91%, while the Naïve Bayes method has an accuracy of 90%

    A Weak State And Strong Militants: Religious Violence In Indonesia With Special Reference To Jakarta, Bali, Maluku And Poso

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    This thesis attempts to analyze the involvement of militant Islamist groups in terror attacks in Jakarta and Bali and religious conflicts intertwined with terror attacks in Maluku and Poso. It also looks at the political and security dimensions of a weak state to explain their rise. Using the comparative method, this thesis generates three important findings. First, the Islamist organization JI is found as the major perpetrator of terror attacks in Jakarta, Bali, and other places in Indonesia. Second, a similar pattern of local, national, and international Islamic militant groups’ involvement was identified in the Maluku and Poso conflicts. However, some differences have also been observed, including the particular involvement of Laskar Mujahidin in the Maluku conflict-instead of the Poso one and the distinct nature of terror attacks in the Maluku and Poso conflicts. Third, the presence of a nexus linking weak political and security institutions is responsible for the government’s incapacity to prevent terror attacks and religious conflicts. Multi-layered conflicts and controversies surrounding political elites and rampant practices of corruption collusions and nepotisms, which serve as political challenges at central levels of political parties , parliament and bureaucracy, eventually spill over to local levels. The only stark difference is the relatively higher intensity of corruption openly practiced in Poso. However, similar problems in security reform is also found in Jakarta, which lead to the politicization and conflicts among military and police officers. This degradation results in partisanships to their co-religionists, ineffective intelligence services, commercialization of security services, poor law enforcement, poor prison management, and poor border control

    FRAGMENTATION AND CONFLICT AMONG ISLAMIC POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDONESIA DURING REFORMASI ERA (1998-2009): Anatomy, Factors and Implications

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    Since independence of the Republic of Indonesia, Muslims, as the majority population, have established diverse Islamic political parties. The nature of such parties has changed from the days of the Old Order to the New Order and Reformasi eras. Despite similar anatomies between Islamic parties of the Old Order and those of Reformasi, Islamic political parties profess different ideological missions. While the beginning of Old Order saw the confederation of Islamic political parties, Masyumi, seeking to promote the establishment of an Islamic State, none of the Islamic political parties which mushroomed during Reformasi era expressly struggled for the establishment of an Islamic state. However, the Islamic political parties had to weather similar problems of internal conflict and fragmentation. Different ideological strands, policy stances and leadership styles are believed to be amongst the pivotal root causes of their domestic troubles. With their popular votes and parliamentary seats significantly reduced, they prove to be no competition to the nationalist political parties

    Fragmentation and Conflict Among Islamic Political Parties in Indonesia During Reformasi Era (1998-2009): Anatomy, Factors and Implications

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    Since independence of the Republic of Indonesia, Muslims, as the majority population, have established diverse Islamic political parties. The nature of such parties has changed from the days of the Old Order to the New Order and Reformasi eras. Despite similar anatomies between Islamic parties of the Old Order and those of Reformasi, Islamic political parties profess different ideological missions. While the beginning of Old Order saw the confederation of Islamic political parties, Masyumi, seeking to promote the establishment of an Islamic State, none of the Islamic political parties which mushroomed during Reformasi era expressly struggled for the establishment of an Islamic state. However, the Islamic political parties had to weather similar problems of internal conflict and fragmentation. Different ideological strands, policy stances and leadership styles are believed to be amongst the pivotal root causes of their domestic troubles. With their popular votes and parliamentary seats significantly reduced, they prove to be no competition to the nationalist political parties

    IMPACT OF BRAND TRUST ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY

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    . The purpose of this study was to analyze   the effect of brand trust on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. This study uses descriptive analysis and statistical methods. Partycipants were selected from different specializations, where each medical center was represented proportionately within the sample. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Path analyis was utilized for the analyses. Keywords: brand trust, customer satisfaction, customer loyalt

    Pembuatan Lapisan Tipis Silikon Amorf Terhidrogenasi (A-si:h) Untuk Bahan Sel Surya

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    PEMBUATAN LAPISAN TIPIS SILIKON AMORF TERHIDROGENASI (a-Si:H) UNTUK BAHAN SEL SURYA. Telah dilakukan pembuatan lapisan tipis silikon amorf terhidrogenasi (a-Si:H) untuk bahan sel surya. Lapisan tipis silikon amorf telah diketahui dan dapat dibuat, akan tetapi bahan lapisan tipis tersebut tidak dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai piranti elektronik. Pengontrolan valensi semi konduktor telah membuka jalan untuk pemanfaatan bahan tersebut untuk piranti-piranti elektro-nik terutama untuk piranti lapisan tipis photovoltaic, karena piranti photovoltaic seperti sel surya membutuhkan luasan aktif yang sangat besar untuk pengumpulan energi surya. Dalam penelitian ini deposisi lapisan tipis silikon amorf terhidrogenasi (a-Si:H) dilakukan dengan metode sputtering pada beberapa variasi parameter, yaitu suhu substrat, tekanan gas dan lama waktu deposisi untuk mendapatkan sifat listrik, terutama nilai resistivitas lapisan optimum. Berdasarkan perhitungan dan analisa data pengukuran dengan probe empat titik, maka lapisan tipis silikon amorf diperoleh hasil nilai resistansi sebesar R = (1,68 ± 0,02) MΩ, nilai resistivitas ρ = (1,80 ± 0,05) Ωm dan nilai konduktivitas σ = (0,57 ± 0,02) Ω-1m-1, yang ini diperoleh pada kondisi suhu 300 oC, tekanan gas 7 x 10-2 torr, waktu deposisi 1,5 jam. Sedangkan hasil untuk lapisan tipis silikon amorf terhidrogenasi (a-Si:H) diperoleh nilai resistansi optimum sebesar R = 1349,66 MΩ, pada suhu 300 oC, tekanan gas 3,8 x 10-2 torr dan waktu deposisi 1,5 jam
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