2,113 research outputs found

    From the social learning theory to a social learning algorithm for global optimization

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    Traditionally, the Evolutionary Computation (EC) paradigm is inspired by Darwinian evolution or the swarm intelligence of animals. Bandura's Social Learning Theory pointed out that the social learning behavior of humans indicates a high level of intelligence in nature. We found that such intelligence of human society can be implemented by numerical computing and be utilized in computational algorithms for solving optimization problems. In this paper, we design a novel and generic optimization approach that mimics the social learning process of humans. Emulating the observational learning and reinforcement behaviors, a virtual society deployed in the algorithm seeks the strongest behavioral patterns with the best outcome. This corresponds to searching for the best solution in solving optimization problems. Experimental studies in this paper showed the appealing search behavior of this human intelligence-inspired approach, which can reach the global optimum even in ill conditions. The effectiveness and high efficiency of the proposed algorithm has further been verified by comparing to some representative EC algorithms and variants on a set of benchmarks

    A review of postharvest approaches to reduce fungal and mycotoxin contamination of foods

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    Contamination of agricultural and food products by some fungi species that produce mycotoxins can result in unsafe food and feed. Mycotoxins have been demonstrated to have disease-causing activities, including carcinogenicity, immune toxicity, teratogenicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Most of mycotoxins are heat stable and cannot be easily destroyed by conventional thermal food processing or domestic cooking methods. Postharvest approaches to prevent growth of mycotoxin-producing fungi and detoxify mycotoxins from contaminated food are important topics in food safety research. Physical, chemical, and biological methods have been applied to prevent fungal growth or mycotoxin production, or to reduce mycotoxin content in the postharvest period and contribute toward mitigating against the effects of mycotoxins on human health. This literature review aims to evaluate postharvest approaches that have been applied to control both fungi growth and mycotoxin content in food and discuss their potential for upscaling to industrial scale

    The Gender Differences in the Effect of Two-sidedness E-WOM Presentation Order on Product Attitude

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    In the Internet environment, electronic word-of mouth plays an important role in affecting consumers’ attitude toward product and service. However, there exists a widespread situation that consumers may receive two-sidedness e-WOM (An e-WOM has both positive and negative message about the same object), and past research has shown that gender differences and situational involvement affect consumers’ perception of e-WOM. This article demonstrates how presentation order of two-sidedness electronic word-of-mouth and gender influence in consumers’ perception and attitude toward product under different situations. Our study found that two-sidedness e-WOM presentation order and gender influenced product attitude: under low-involvement situation, males (females) exhibited primacy (recency)effects when receiving a two-sidedness e-WOM which containing both positive and negative messages about product. Under high-involvement situation, all respondents appeared to process two-sidedness e-WOM systematically and consider more relevant information in their evaluations. The result revealed that females continued to exhibit recency effects, but the primacy effects with males disappeared, they will exhibit obvious recency effects
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