4,298 research outputs found

    From the social learning theory to a social learning algorithm for global optimization

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    Traditionally, the Evolutionary Computation (EC) paradigm is inspired by Darwinian evolution or the swarm intelligence of animals. Bandura's Social Learning Theory pointed out that the social learning behavior of humans indicates a high level of intelligence in nature. We found that such intelligence of human society can be implemented by numerical computing and be utilized in computational algorithms for solving optimization problems. In this paper, we design a novel and generic optimization approach that mimics the social learning process of humans. Emulating the observational learning and reinforcement behaviors, a virtual society deployed in the algorithm seeks the strongest behavioral patterns with the best outcome. This corresponds to searching for the best solution in solving optimization problems. Experimental studies in this paper showed the appealing search behavior of this human intelligence-inspired approach, which can reach the global optimum even in ill conditions. The effectiveness and high efficiency of the proposed algorithm has further been verified by comparing to some representative EC algorithms and variants on a set of benchmarks

    Topolgical Charged Black Holes in Generalized Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

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    As a candidate of quantum gravity in ultrahigh energy, the (3+1)(3+1)-dimensional Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity with critical exponent z1z\ne 1, indicates anisotropy between time and space at short distance. In the paper, we investigate the most general z=dz=d Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity in arbitrary spatial dimension dd, with a generic dynamical Ricci flow parameter λ\lambda and a detailed balance violation parameter ϵ\epsilon. In arbitrary dimensional generalized HLd+1_{d+1} gravity with zdz\ge d at long distance, we study the topological neutral black hole solutions with general λ\lambda in z=dz=d HLd+1_{d+1}, as well as the topological charged black holes with λ=1\lambda=1 in z=dz=d HLd+1_{d+1}. The HL gravity in the Lagrangian formulation is adopted, while in the Hamiltonian formulation, it reduces to Dirac-De Witt's canonical gravity with λ=1\lambda=1. In particular, the topological charged black holes in z=5z=5 HL6_6, z=4z=4 HL5_5, z=3,4z=3,4 HL4_4 and z=2z=2 HL3_3 with λ=1\lambda=1 are solved. Their asymptotical behaviors near the infinite boundary and near the horizon are explored respectively. We also study the behavior of the topological black holes in the (d+1)(d+1)-dimensional HL gravity with U(1)U(1) gauge field in the zero temperature limit and finite temperature limit, respectively. Thermodynamics of the topological charged black holes with λ=1\lambda=1, including temperature, entropy, heat capacity, and free energy are evaluated.Comment: 51 pages, published version. The theoretical framework of z=d HL gravity is set up, and higher curvature terms in spatial dimension become relevant at UV fixed point. Lovelock term, conformal term, new massive term, and Chern-Simons term with different critical exponent z are studie

    Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

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    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observations are further supported by numerical evaluation using the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equationComment: 26 pages, 3 figure

    A review of postharvest approaches to reduce fungal and mycotoxin contamination of foods

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    Contamination of agricultural and food products by some fungi species that produce mycotoxins can result in unsafe food and feed. Mycotoxins have been demonstrated to have disease-causing activities, including carcinogenicity, immune toxicity, teratogenicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Most of mycotoxins are heat stable and cannot be easily destroyed by conventional thermal food processing or domestic cooking methods. Postharvest approaches to prevent growth of mycotoxin-producing fungi and detoxify mycotoxins from contaminated food are important topics in food safety research. Physical, chemical, and biological methods have been applied to prevent fungal growth or mycotoxin production, or to reduce mycotoxin content in the postharvest period and contribute toward mitigating against the effects of mycotoxins on human health. This literature review aims to evaluate postharvest approaches that have been applied to control both fungi growth and mycotoxin content in food and discuss their potential for upscaling to industrial scale
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