35 research outputs found

    Molecular Design of Nanofiltration Membranes for the Recovery of Phosphorus from Sewage Sludge

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    With the rapid depletion of mineral phosphorus, the recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge becomes increasingly important. However, the presence of various contaminants such as heavy metals in sewage sludge complicates the issue. One must separate phosphorus from the heavy metals in order to produce fertilizers of high quality. Among various available methods, nanofiltration (NF) has been demonstrated to be a feasible and promising option when the sewage sludge undergoes acidic dissolution and the operating pH is around 2. Because the performance of commercially available thin film composite (TFC) NF membranes reported thus far has great room for improvement, the development of highly permeable positively charged NF membranes is recommended. To this aim, a NF membrane that is desirable for phosphorus recovery was fabricated via interfacial polymerization of polyethylenimine (PEI) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on a porous poly­(ether sulfone) (PES) membrane substrate. Through an optimization of the interfacial polymerization process, which involves varying the molecular weight of PEI and the concentration of TMC, the resultant membrane displays a low molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 170 Da with a reasonably high pure water permeability (<i>A</i>) of 6.4 LMH/bar. The newly developed NF membrane can effectively reject a wide variety of heavy metal ions such as Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni (>93%) while demonstrating a low phosphorus rejection of 19.6% at 10 bar using a feed solution of pH 2. Thus, up to 90% of the feed phosphorus may be recovered using this newly developed NF membrane at a permeate recovery of 90%. This is a highly competitive value for the recovery of phosphorus

    Economics and Controllability of Conventional and Intensified Extractive Distillation Configurations for Acetonitrile/Methanol/Benzene Mixtures

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    For the industrial separation problem of acetonitrile/methanol/benzene involving three azeotropes, this article proposes two novel intensified configurations with chlorobenzene as solvent by extending the extractive dividing-wall column (EDWC) and side-stream extractive distillation column (SEDC) from single azeotropic to multiazeotropic mixtures and makes a comparison with a conventional extractive distillation (CED) configuration in aspects of economic and controllability. Steady-state designs are optimized via using the sequential iterations search based on minimum total annual cost (TAC). The results show that extended-EDWC and extended-SEDC compared to CED can reduce TAC by 6.32% and 14.39% and energy consumption by 4.26% and 20.59%, respectively. As far as controllability is concerned, all proposed control structures can hold products at high purities with acceptable deviations and short settle time after introducing feed flow and composition disturbances. Overall, apparent economic benefits and high energy efficiency provided by the extended-SEDC configuration can be achieved without a deterioration of control behavior for some multiazeotropic mixtures

    Two Vanadogermanates from 1‑Dimensional Chain to 2‑Dimensional Network Built from Di-Cd-Substituted Ge–V–O Clusters and Transition Metal Complex Bridges

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    Two novel vanadogermanates [Cd­(en)­(H<sub>2</sub>O)<sub>2</sub>]­[Cd­(en)<sub>2</sub>]­[Cd­(en)]­{[Cd­(en)]<sub>2</sub>[Ge<sub>8</sub>V<sub>12</sub>O<sub>42.5</sub>(OH)<sub>5</sub>]}·2H<sub>2</sub>O (<b>1</b>) and [Cd­(en)<sub>3</sub>]­[Cd­(en)]<sub>2</sub>{[Cd­(en)]<sub>2</sub>[Ge<sub>8</sub>V<sub>12</sub>O<sub>42</sub>(OH)<sub>6</sub>]}·10H<sub>2</sub>O (<b>2</b>, en = ethylenediamine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractions, thermogravimetric analysis, UV–vis spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Structural analysis reveals that the Ge–V–O cluster anions in the two compounds are derived from the classical saturated {V<sub>18</sub>O<sub>42</sub>} cluster by replacing four VO<sub>5</sub> square pyramids with four Ge<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub> groups. Especially, the Ge–V–O cluster anion in <b>2</b> is a new configuration of Ge–V–O clusters with four Ge<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub> groups and first reported in this work. <b>1</b> is the first 1-dimensional (1-D) chain based on the linkage of centrosymmetric dimeric clusters {[Cd­(en)]<sub>2</sub>[Ge<sub>8</sub>V<sub>12</sub>O<sub>42.5</sub>(OH)<sub>5</sub>]}<sub>2</sub><sup>12–</sup> and trinuclearity [Cd<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>(en)<sub>4</sub>(H<sub>2</sub>O)<sub>2</sub>]<sup>2–</sup> complexes. <b>2</b> is an unprecedented 2-D network built from unique {[Cd­(en)]<sub>2</sub>[Ge<sub>8</sub>V<sub>12</sub>O<sub>42</sub>(OH)<sub>6</sub>]}<sup>8–</sup> clusters and 1-D coordination chains {Cd<sub>3</sub>O<sub>2</sub>(en)<sub>5</sub>}<sup>2+</sup>. Magnetic measurements illustrate that these compounds have overall antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between metal ions

    Hypocrellin-Loaded Gold Nanocages with High Two-Photon Efficiency for Photothermal/Photodynamic Cancer Therapy <i>in Vitro</i>

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    A new bioconjugate nanostructure was constructed by using photosensitizer-incorporated mixed lipid-coated gold nanocages for two-photon photothermal/photodynamic cancer therapy <i>in vitro</i> with high efficiency. Scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic images reveal that the precursors and bioconjugate nanostructure as-prepared are narrowly dispersed and possess uniform morphologies. The relevant energy dispersion X-ray analysis and UV–vis spectra indicate that the bioconjugate nanostructure above was assembled successfully and has a strong absorption in the near-infrared region. Fluorescence and electronic spin resonance results show that the gold nanocage in the bioconjugate nanostructure can dramatically quench the photosensitizer and inhibit the production of singlet oxygen, which is supposed to alleviate the photosensitizers’ unwanted side effects originating from their nontargeted distribution. We have demonstrated that as the nanocomplex is internalized by cancer cells, under two-photon illumination, photodynamic anticancer treatment is dramatically enhanced by the photothermal effect

    Table_1_Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Alleviates the Neurodegenerative Phenotypes and Histone Dysregulation in Presenilins-Deficient Mice.pdf

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    <p>Histone acetylation has been shown to play a crucial role in memory formation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) has been demonstrated to improve memory performance and rescue the neurodegeneration of several Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) mouse models. The forebrain presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 conditional double knockout (cDKO) mice showed memory impairment, forebrain degeneration, tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation that closely mimics AD-like phenotypes. In this article, we have investigated the effects of systemic administration of NaB on neurodegenerative phenotypes in cDKO mice. We found that chronic NaB treatment significantly restored contextual memory but did not alter cued memory in cDKO mice while such an effect was not permanent after treatment withdrawal. We further revealed that NaB treatment did not rescue reduced synaptic numbers and cortical shrinkage in cDKO mice, but significantly increased the neurogenesis in subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (DG). We also observed that tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation related protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) level were decreased in cDKO mice by NaB. Furthermore, GO and pathway analysis for the RNA-Seq data demonstrated that NaB treatment induced enrichment of transcripts associated with inflammation/immune processes and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions. RT-PCR confirmed that NaB treatment inhibited the expression of inflammation related genes such as S100a9 and Ccl4 found upregulated in the brain of cDKO mice. Surprisingly, the level of brain histone acetylation in cDKO mice was dramatically increased and was decreased by the administration of NaB, which may reflect dysregulation of histone acetylation underlying memory impairment in cDKO mice. These results shed some lights on the possible molecular mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor in alleviating the neurodegenerative phenotypes of cDKO mice and provide a promising target for treating AD.</p

    New Metal–Plastic Hybrid Additive Manufacturing for Precise Fabrication of Arbitrary Metal Patterns on External and Even Internal Surfaces of 3D Plastic Structures

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    Constructing precise metal patterns on complex three-dimensional (3D) plastic parts allows the fabrication of functional devices for advanced applications. However, it is currently expensive and requires complex processes. This study demonstrates a process for the fabrication of 3D metal–plastic composite structures with arbitrarily complex shapes. A light-cured resin is modified to prepare the active precursor allowing subsequent electroless plating (ELP). A multimaterial digital light processing 3D printer was newly developed to fabricate the parts containing regions made of either standard resin or active precursor nested within each other. Selective 3D ELP processing of such parts provided various metal–plastic composite parts having complicated hollow structures with specific topological relationships with the resolution of 40 μm. Using this technique, 3D devices that cannot be manufactured by traditional methods are possible, and metal patterns can be produced inside plastic parts as a means of further miniaturizing electronics. The proposed method can also generate metal coatings exhibiting improved adhesion of metal to substrate. Finally, several sensors composed of different functional materials and specific metal patterns were designed and fabricated. The present results demonstrate the viability of the proposed method and suggest potential applications in the fields of 3D electronics, wearable devices, and sensors

    Image_1_Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Alleviates the Neurodegenerative Phenotypes and Histone Dysregulation in Presenilins-Deficient Mice.pdf

    No full text
    <p>Histone acetylation has been shown to play a crucial role in memory formation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) has been demonstrated to improve memory performance and rescue the neurodegeneration of several Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) mouse models. The forebrain presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 conditional double knockout (cDKO) mice showed memory impairment, forebrain degeneration, tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation that closely mimics AD-like phenotypes. In this article, we have investigated the effects of systemic administration of NaB on neurodegenerative phenotypes in cDKO mice. We found that chronic NaB treatment significantly restored contextual memory but did not alter cued memory in cDKO mice while such an effect was not permanent after treatment withdrawal. We further revealed that NaB treatment did not rescue reduced synaptic numbers and cortical shrinkage in cDKO mice, but significantly increased the neurogenesis in subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (DG). We also observed that tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation related protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) level were decreased in cDKO mice by NaB. Furthermore, GO and pathway analysis for the RNA-Seq data demonstrated that NaB treatment induced enrichment of transcripts associated with inflammation/immune processes and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions. RT-PCR confirmed that NaB treatment inhibited the expression of inflammation related genes such as S100a9 and Ccl4 found upregulated in the brain of cDKO mice. Surprisingly, the level of brain histone acetylation in cDKO mice was dramatically increased and was decreased by the administration of NaB, which may reflect dysregulation of histone acetylation underlying memory impairment in cDKO mice. These results shed some lights on the possible molecular mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor in alleviating the neurodegenerative phenotypes of cDKO mice and provide a promising target for treating AD.</p

    Table_2_Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Alleviates the Neurodegenerative Phenotypes and Histone Dysregulation in Presenilins-Deficient Mice.pdf

    No full text
    <p>Histone acetylation has been shown to play a crucial role in memory formation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) has been demonstrated to improve memory performance and rescue the neurodegeneration of several Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) mouse models. The forebrain presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 conditional double knockout (cDKO) mice showed memory impairment, forebrain degeneration, tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation that closely mimics AD-like phenotypes. In this article, we have investigated the effects of systemic administration of NaB on neurodegenerative phenotypes in cDKO mice. We found that chronic NaB treatment significantly restored contextual memory but did not alter cued memory in cDKO mice while such an effect was not permanent after treatment withdrawal. We further revealed that NaB treatment did not rescue reduced synaptic numbers and cortical shrinkage in cDKO mice, but significantly increased the neurogenesis in subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (DG). We also observed that tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation related protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) level were decreased in cDKO mice by NaB. Furthermore, GO and pathway analysis for the RNA-Seq data demonstrated that NaB treatment induced enrichment of transcripts associated with inflammation/immune processes and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions. RT-PCR confirmed that NaB treatment inhibited the expression of inflammation related genes such as S100a9 and Ccl4 found upregulated in the brain of cDKO mice. Surprisingly, the level of brain histone acetylation in cDKO mice was dramatically increased and was decreased by the administration of NaB, which may reflect dysregulation of histone acetylation underlying memory impairment in cDKO mice. These results shed some lights on the possible molecular mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor in alleviating the neurodegenerative phenotypes of cDKO mice and provide a promising target for treating AD.</p

    Image_2_Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Alleviates the Neurodegenerative Phenotypes and Histone Dysregulation in Presenilins-Deficient Mice.pdf

    No full text
    <p>Histone acetylation has been shown to play a crucial role in memory formation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) has been demonstrated to improve memory performance and rescue the neurodegeneration of several Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) mouse models. The forebrain presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 conditional double knockout (cDKO) mice showed memory impairment, forebrain degeneration, tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation that closely mimics AD-like phenotypes. In this article, we have investigated the effects of systemic administration of NaB on neurodegenerative phenotypes in cDKO mice. We found that chronic NaB treatment significantly restored contextual memory but did not alter cued memory in cDKO mice while such an effect was not permanent after treatment withdrawal. We further revealed that NaB treatment did not rescue reduced synaptic numbers and cortical shrinkage in cDKO mice, but significantly increased the neurogenesis in subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (DG). We also observed that tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammation related protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) level were decreased in cDKO mice by NaB. Furthermore, GO and pathway analysis for the RNA-Seq data demonstrated that NaB treatment induced enrichment of transcripts associated with inflammation/immune processes and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions. RT-PCR confirmed that NaB treatment inhibited the expression of inflammation related genes such as S100a9 and Ccl4 found upregulated in the brain of cDKO mice. Surprisingly, the level of brain histone acetylation in cDKO mice was dramatically increased and was decreased by the administration of NaB, which may reflect dysregulation of histone acetylation underlying memory impairment in cDKO mice. These results shed some lights on the possible molecular mechanisms of HDAC inhibitor in alleviating the neurodegenerative phenotypes of cDKO mice and provide a promising target for treating AD.</p

    Presentation1_Multimodality imaging assessment of primary pericardial rhabdomyosarcoma: a case report.zip

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    Primary pericardial sarcomas are rare and lethal diseases. To date, only a few cases of primary pericardial sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), have been reported. Since the unusual location of RMS in the pericardium makes it challenging to diagnose, precise diagnostic procedures are required. In this study, we present the case of a 23-year-old man who experienced postprandial obstruction and atypical precordial pain that lasted for a week. Echocardiography revealed a heterogeneous isoechoic pericardial mass with a significant pericardial effusion. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed a massive pericardial effusion along with an irregular, defined, heterogeneously enhancing mass that was located between the pericardium and diaphragm. PET-CT imaging showed an intense FDG uptake in the pericardial mass. Furthermore, cardiac MRI demonstrated malignant characteristics of the pericardial mass and provided a detailed visualization of its exact anatomical connection with both cardiac and extracardiac structures. Finally, a pathologic examination of a puncture biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of primary pericardial RMS. Our case emphasizes the importance of multimodal imaging for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac involvement, while providing clinicians with crucial information for clinical treatment and decision-making.</p
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