1,351 research outputs found

    * Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory FERMIIAB Conf-95/146-E CDF and D0 W/Z + Jets Production at the Tevatron PP Collider

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    Abstract Both the DO and CDF experiments at Fermilab Tevatron collider at fi = 1.8TeV have accumuiated over 13pb -' of data during the 1992-1993 collider run. Each experiment collected more than 10,000 W + 1-t v and 1,000 2 -+ 1 + j candidates for each lepton species (e and /A). Using this large data sample of W and Z candidates, the two experiments are actively testing perturbative QCD predictions. Among the studies that are in progress, preliminary results of Z+jets characteristics, multiplicity distributions of associated jets, and a determination of the strong coupling constant using the ratio of the W+ljet to W + Ojet cross sections are presented

    Optically Levitated Nanodumbbell Torsion Balance and GHz Nanomechanical Rotor

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    Levitated optomechanics has great potentials in precision measurements, thermodynamics, macroscopic quantum mechanics and quantum sensing. Here we synthesize and optically levitate silica nanodumbbells in high vacuum. With a linearly polarized laser, we observe the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nanodumbbell in vacuum. The linearly-polarized optical tweezer provides a restoring torque to confine the orientation of the nanodumbbell, in analog to the torsion wire which provides restoring torque for suspended lead spheres in the Cavendish torsion balance. Our calculation shows its torque detection sensitivity can exceed that of the current state-of-the-art torsion balance by several orders. The levitated nanodumbbell torsion balance provides rare opportunities to observe the Casimir torque and probe the quantum nature of gravity as proposed recently. With a circularly-polarized laser, we drive a 170-nm-diameter nanodumbbell to rotate beyond 1~GHz, which is the fastest nanomechanical rotor realized to date. Our calculations show that smaller silica nanodumbbells can sustain rotation frequency beyond 10 GHz. Such ultrafast rotation may be used to study material properties and probe vacuum friction

    Solvent: A Framework for Protein Folding

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    Consistency and reliability are crucial for conducting AI research. Many famous research fields, such as object detection, have been compared and validated with solid benchmark frameworks. After AlphaFold2, the protein folding task has entered a new phase, and many methods are proposed based on the component of AlphaFold2. The importance of a unified research framework in protein folding contains implementations and benchmarks to consistently and fairly compare various approaches. To achieve this, we present Solvent, an protein folding framework that supports significant components of state-of-the-art models in the manner of off-the-shelf interface Solvent contains different models implemented in a unified codebase and supports training and evaluation for defined models on the same dataset. We benchmark well-known algorithms and their components and provide experiments that give helpful insights into the protein structure modeling field. We hope that Solvent will increase the reliability and consistency of proposed models and gives efficiency in both speed and costs, resulting in acceleration on protein folding modeling research. The code is available at https://github.com/kakaobrain/solvent, and the project will continue to be developed.Comment: preprint, 8page

    Search for Boosted Dark Matter at ProtoDUNE

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    We propose the first experimental test of the inelastic boosted dark matter hypothesis, capitalizing on the new physics potential with the imminent data taking of the ProtoDUNE detectors. More specifically, we explore various experimental signatures at the cosmic frontier, arising in boosted dark matter scenarios, i.e., relativistic, inelastic scattering of boosted dark matter often created by the annihilation of its heavier component which usually comprises of the dominant relic abundance. Although features are unique enough to isolate signal events from potential backgrounds, vetoing a vast amount of cosmic background is rather challenging as the detectors are located on the ground. We argue, with a careful estimate, that such backgrounds nevertheless can be well under control by performing dedicated analyses after data acquisition. We then discuss some phenomenological studies which can be achieved with ProtoDUNE, employing a dark photon scenario as our benchmark dark-sector model.Comment: Supplemental material include

    Timing-Dependent Actions of NGF Required for Cell Differentiation

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    BACKGROUND: Continuous NGF stimulation induces PC12 cell differentiation. However, why continuous NGF stimulation is required for differentiation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the timing-dependent requirement of NGF action for cell differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the timing-dependency of the NGF action, we performed a discontinuous stimulation assay consisting of a first transient stimulation followed by an interval and then a second sustained stimulation and quantified the neurite extension level. Consequently, we observed a timing-dependent action of NGF on cell differentiation, and discontinuous NGF stimulation similarly induced differentiation. The first stimulation did not induce neurite extension, whereas the second stimulation induced fast neurite extension; therefore, the first stimulation is likely required as a prerequisite condition. These observations indicate that the action of NGF can be divided into two processes: an initial stimulation-driven latent process and a second stimulation-driven extension process. The latent process appears to require the activities of ERK and transcription, but not PI3K, whereas the extension-process requires the activities of ERK and PI3K, but not transcription. We also found that during the first stimulation, the activity of NGF can be replaced by PACAP, but not by insulin, EGF, bFGF or forskolin; during the second stimulation, however, the activity of NGF cannot be replaced by any of these stimulants. These findings allowed us to identify potential genes specifically involved in the latent process, rather than in other processes, using a microarray. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that NGF induces the differentiation of PC12 cells via mechanically distinct processes: an ERK-driven and transcription-dependent latent process, and an ERK- and PI3K-driven and transcription-independent extension process