291,747 research outputs found

    Diffuse PeV neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts

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    The IceCube collaboration recently reported the potential detection of two cascade neutrino events in the energy range 1-10 PeV. We study the possibility that these PeV neutrinos are produced by gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), paying special attention to the contribution by untriggered GRBs that elude detection due to their low photon flux. Based on the luminosity function, rate distribution with redshift and spectral properties of GRBs, we generate, using Monte-Carlo simulation, a GRB sample that reproduce the observed fluence distribution of Fermi/GBM GRBs and an accompanying sample of untriggered GRBs simultaneously. The neutrino flux of every individual GRBs is calculated in the standard internal shock scenario, so that the accumulative flux of the whole samples can be obtained. We find that the neutrino flux in PeV energies produced by untriggered GRBs is about 2 times higher than that produced by the triggered ones. Considering the existing IceCube limit on the neutrino flux of triggered GRBs, we find that the total flux of triggered and untriggered GRBs can reach at most a level of ~10^-9 GeV cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1, which is insufficient to account for the reported two PeV neutrinos. Possible contributions to diffuse neutrinos by low-luminosity GRBs and the earliest population of GRBs are also discussed.Comment: Accepted by ApJ, one more figure added to show the contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux by untriggered GRBs with different luminosity, results and conclusions unchange

    Seebeck coefficient of thermoelectric moleculat junction: First-principles calculations

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    A first-principles approach is presented for the thermoelectricity in molecular junctions formed by a single molecule contact. The study investigates the Seebeck coefficient considering the source-drain electrodes with distinct temperatures and chemical potentials in a three-terminal geometry junction. We compare the Seebeck coefficient in the amino-substituted and unsubstituted butanethiol junction and observe interesting thermoelectric properties in the amino-substituted junction. Due to the novel states around the Fermi levels introduced by the amino-substitution, the Seebeck coefficient could be easily modulated by using gate voltages and biases. When the temperature in one of the electrodes is fixed, the Seebeck coefficient varies significantly with the temperature in the other electrode, and such dependence could be modulated by varying the gate voltages. As the biases increase, richer features in the Seebeck coefficient are observed, which are closely related to the transmission functions in the vicinity of the left and right Fermi levels.Comment: 4 pages; 2 figure