2,783 research outputs found

    Transitory Eye Shapes and the Vertical Distribution of Two Midwater Squids

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    In two cranchiid squids, Sandalops melancholicus and Taonius pavo, the shapes of the eyes change with growth. Compressed eyes with ocular appendages occur in the larvae living in the upper few hundred meters of the ocean. Tubular eyes occur in juveniles that live within a depth zone between about 400 and 700 m. Nearly hemispherical eyes are found in adults living at depths greater than 700 m. The shapes of the compressed and tubular eyes offer strong countershading advantages to squids living at depths where downwelling light is important in prey-predator relationships

    A brief review of the biology of the oceanic squid, Symplectoteuthis oualaniensis (Lesson)

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    Our current knowledge of the squid, Symplectoteuthis oualaniensis, one of the organisms utilized to a large extent during the Alpha Helix Kona Expedition, is briefly reviewed

    Evidence for spawning by Gonatus sp. (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) in the high Arctic Ocean

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    A specimen o[ the squid, Gonatus sp., was captured through an ice hole at 79┬░ 58' N. lat. , 170┬░ 23' E. lang. (about 500 miles north of Wrangel fsland, Siberia) whose condition suggests it had spawned just before its capture an March 30, 1962. The emaciated condition is described in specimens of other Californian female Gonatus that presumably had spawned just before capture, and a brief review is given of the records of the degeneration and fatal effects from spawning by females in otlzer genera of squid and octopods

    Vertical distribution and photosensitive vesicles of pelagic cephalopods from Hawaiian waters

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    Vertical distribution data were obtained for 47 species ofpelagic cephalopods off Oahu, Hawaii. Peaks in species richness occurred at 500-800 m during the day and in the upper 300 m at night. Over 80% of the individuals occurred in the upper 250 m at night. Approximately 60% of the species underwent diel vertical migration, and most of these migrated into the upper 250 m. In five of nine groups of closely related species, clear differences in habitat were found. Deepwaterspawning appeared to occur in a variety of cephalopods. Two of the bathypelagic octopods brooded their young at or above the upper limit of the remaining adult population. In doing so, the extent of the upward migration of newly hatched individuals was reduced. Photosensitive vesicles occurred in all species. These organs probably detect downwelling daylight for regulating vertical migration and counterillumination. The vesicles also appeared to form an elaborate system for monitoring bioluminescent light from the animal┬┤s own photophores, from within the mantle cavity, and from other animals located outside the visual field

    Comparing the effects of COX and non-COX-inhibiting NSAIDs on enhancement of apoptosis and inhibition of aberrant crypt foci formation in a rat colorectal cancer model

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    The protection against colorectal cancer (CRC) by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is in part dependent on inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). We compared the efficacy of the non-COX-inhibiting R flurbiprofen (R-FB) with COX-inhibiting sulindac and racemic flurbiprofen (Rac-FB), and determined their effects on apoptosis, in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat CRC model. In experiment 1, groups of rats were given daily drug gavage (R-FB 30 mg/kg, Rac-FB 10 mg/kg and Sulindac 20 mg/kg) for one week, followed by AOM treatment and were killed eight hours later, colons were examined for apoptosis and cell proliferation. In experiment 2, groups of rats were given two AOM treatments, followed by daily drug gavage until they were killed ten weeks later, colons were examined for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and prostaglandin E 2 production. All drugs significantly enhanced apoptosis and inhibited ACF, irrespective of their COX-inhibiting potency (p<0.01), but sulindac was more potent in inhibition of large ACF, p<0.05. COX-inhibiting sulindac achieved the greatest protective effect. The greater safety profile of Rac-FB should provide an advantage for chemoprevention.This work was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Cancer Council of South Australia (CCSA) (project no: 1007501 and 525925)

    Genome sequence of the parainfluenza virus 5 strain that persistently infects AGS cells

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    This work, including the efforts of Richard E Randall, was funded by Wellcome Trust (101788/Z/13/Z). This work, including the efforts of Steve Goodbourn, was funded by Wellcome Trust (101792/Z/13/Z).We have sequenced the parainfluenza virus 5 strain that persistently infects the commonly used AGS human cell line without causing cytopathology. This virus is most closely related to human strains, indicating that it may have originated from biopsy material or from laboratory contamination during generation of the cell line.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    The Common Occurrence of Oegopsid Squid Eggs in Near-Surface Oceanic Waters

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    A variety of egg types removed from near-surface plankton tows off Hawaii developed into young squids. Previously, the eggs of pelagic, oceanic squids were virtually unknown. Over 90% of these near-surface plankton tows taken with a l-m net contained squid eggs. About 90% of the eggs were collected in the upper 100m with most of these coming from the mixed layer. The eggs were separate rather than in masses. Two egg types have been identified. One belongs to the Enoploteuthinae, which are thought to spawn individual eggs. The other belongs to the Brachioteuthidae, whose spawning mode is unknown. Most squids are thought to deposit eggs in masses. Estimates, based on the abundance of the captured eggs, indicate that the chances of sampling an intact egg mass with a plankton net are small

    Make Research Data Public? -- Not Always so Simple: A Dialogue for Statisticians and Science Editors

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    Putting data into the public domain is not the same thing as making those data accessible for intelligent analysis. A distinguished group of editors and experts who were already engaged in one way or another with the issues inherent in making research data public came together with statisticians to initiate a dialogue about policies and practicalities of requiring published research to be accompanied by publication of the research data. This dialogue carried beyond the broad issues of the advisability, the intellectual integrity, the scientific exigencies to the relevance of these issues to statistics as a discipline and the relevance of statistics, from inference to modeling to data exploration, to science and social science policies on these issues.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/10-STS320 the Statistical Science (http://www.imstat.org/sts/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Harmonisation of medical devices classification systems: development of a generalised approach starting from hip prostheses. A first example of an international and standardised nomenclature to be integrated within the European Medical Device Nomenclature

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    Medical device (MD) nomenclatures are essential for market surveillance and vigilance activities. Currently, more than 25 arthroplasty Registries are established in Europe, each of them based on a different MD nomenclature. A common and shared nomenclature of orthopaedic implants is important to analyse implant performance across different national databases referring to a unique definition of its characteristics. Aim of this study is to describe an approach to compare and harmonise two different nomenclatures: a first step towards the organization of an international nomenclature of medical devices
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