2,583 research outputs found

    To Change the World: The Irony, Tragedy, and Possibility of Christianity in the Late Modern World (Book Review)

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    Reviewed Title: Hunter, James Davison. To Change the World: The Irony, Tragedy, and Possibility of Christianity in the Late Modern World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. 358 pages. ISBN: 978-0-19-973080-3

    The Passing of Print

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    This paper argues that ephemera is a key instrument of cultural memory, marking the things intended to be forgotten. This important role means that when ephemera survives, whether accidentally or deliberately, it does so despite itself. These survivals, because they evoke all those other objects that have necessarily been forgotten, can be described as uncanny. The paper is divided into three main sections. The first situates ephemera within an uncanny economy of memory and forgetting. The second focuses on ephemera at a particular historical moment, the industrialization of print in the nineteenth century. This section considers the liminal place of newspapers and periodicals in this period, positioned as both provisional media for information as well as objects of record. The third section introduces a new configuration of technologies – scanners, computers, hard disks, monitors, the various connections between them – and considers the conditions under which born-digital ephemera can linger and return. Through this analysis, the paper concludes by considering digital technologies as an apparatus of memory, setting out what is required if we are not to be doubly haunted by the printed ephemera within the digital archive

    L-Edge Spectroscopy of Dilute, Radiation-Sensitive Systems Using a Transition-Edge-Sensor Array

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    We present X-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements on the iron L-edge of 0.5 mM aqueous ferricyanide. These measurements demonstrate the ability of high-throughput transition-edge-sensor (TES) spectrometers to access the rich soft X-ray (100-2000eV) spectroscopy regime for dilute and radiation-sensitive samples. Our low-concentration data are in agreement with high-concentration measurements recorded by conventional grating-based spectrometers. These results show that soft X-ray RIXS spectroscopy acquired by high-throughput TES spectrometers can be used to study the local electronic structure of dilute metal-centered complexes relevant to biology, chemistry and catalysis. In particular, TES spectrometers have a unique ability to characterize frozen solutions of radiation- and temperature-sensitive samples.Comment: 19 pages, 4 figure

    How Much Does Self- Talk Influence Fatigue? A Comparison of Performance, Perceived Exertion, and Neuromuscular Patterns during High-Intensity Power Cleans

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    Experienced athletes use self-talk (ST) when challenged to monitor distress, to continue effort, and battle fatigue. The power clean, a training modality for power sports, challenges athletes to develop cognitive strategies to maintain performance, technique, and persist. A problem has been that ST studies have not measured perception of effort and muscle firing when ST is purposefully withheld. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ST to a control group during a session of power clean to fatigue. Also, multiple parameters were assessed and included perceptual, neural, and performance standards. The method of randomly assigned ST and control (CON) groups compared 24 experienced Olympic lifting men (age range 18 to 28 years). The groups completed continuous sets of power cleans for three repetitions at 85% of maximum effort with a three-minute rest in between sets until failure. The ST group was instructed to engage in organic, goal-directed self-talk (ST group) during exercise. The CON group focused on a neutral attentional focus. The results demonstrated that the ST group achieved more sets, reps, and total weight lifted (p < 0.05). Both groups had comparable increases in perceived exertion prior to fatigue (p < 0.001). Persistence (numbers of sets and repetitions) after reaching the perceptual breakpoint (RPE of “8”) was higher for the ST group (p <0.01) by 8.5 repetitions. Pain tolerance was slightly higher in the ST group as well. The ST group demonstrated lower activation in two muscle groups despite performing more work. In conclusion, ST enhanced performance by 43% once an RPE of eight was reached, resulted in 63% more repetitions, and demonstrated more efficient muscle activation patterns.

    Galaxy Zoo: Dust in Spirals

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    We investigate the effect of dust on spiral galaxies by measuring the inclination-dependence of optical colours for 24,276 well-resolved SDSS galaxies visually classified in Galaxy Zoo. We find clear trends of reddening with inclination which imply a total extinction from face-on to edge-on of 0.7, 0.6, 0.5 and 0.4 magnitudes for the ugri passbands. We split the sample into "bulgy" (early-type) and "disky" (late-type) spirals using the SDSS fracdeV (or f_DeV) parameter and show that the average face-on colour of "bulgy" spirals is redder than the average edge-on colour of "disky" spirals. This shows that the observed optical colour of a spiral galaxy is determined almost equally by the spiral type (via the bulge-disk ratio and stellar populations), and reddening due to dust. We find that both luminosity and spiral type affect the total amount of extinction, with "disky" spirals at M_r ~ -21.5 mags having the most reddening. This decrease of reddening for the most luminous spirals has not been observed before and may be related to their lower levels of recent star formation. We compare our results with the latest dust attenuation models of Tuffs et al. We find that the model reproduces the observed trends reasonably well but overpredicts the amount of u-band attenuation in edge-on galaxies. We end by discussing the effects of dust on large galaxy surveys and emphasize that these effects will become important as we push to higher precision measurements of galaxy properties and their clustering.Comment: MNRAS in press. 25 pages, 22 figures (including an abstract comparing GZ classifications with common automated methods for selecting disk/early type galaxies in SDSS data). v2 corrects typos found in proof

    The Association between Supraphysiologic Arterial Oxygen Levels and Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. A Multicenter Observational Cohort Study.

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    Rationale: There is conflicting evidence on harm related to exposure to supraphysiologic PaO2 (hyperoxemia) in critically ill patients.Objectives: To examine the association between longitudinal exposure to hyperoxemia and mortality in patients admitted to ICUs in five United Kingdom university hospitals.Methods: A retrospective cohort of ICU admissions between January 31, 2014, and December 31, 2018, from the National Institute of Health Research Critical Care Health Informatics Collaborative was studied. Multivariable logistic regression modeled death in ICU by exposure to hyperoxemia.Measurements and Main Results: Subsets with oxygen exposure windows of 0 to 1, 0 to 3, 0 to 5, and 0 to 7 days were evaluated, capturing 19,515, 10,525, 6,360, and 4,296 patients, respectively. Hyperoxemia dose was defined as the area between the PaO2 time curve and a boundary of 13.3 kPa (100 mm Hg) divided by the hours of potential exposure (24, 72, 120, or 168 h). An association was found between exposure to hyperoxemia and ICU mortality for exposure windows of 0 to 1 days (odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95% compatibility interval [CI], 0.95-1.38; P = 0.15), 0 to 3 days (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04-1.74; P = 0.02), 0 to 5 days (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.07-2.13; P = 0.02), and 0 to 7 days (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11-2.72; P = 0.02). However, a dose-response relationship was not observed. There was no evidence to support a differential effect between hyperoxemia and either a respiratory diagnosis or mechanical ventilation.Conclusions: An association between hyperoxemia and mortality was observed in our large, unselected multicenter cohort. The absence of a dose-response relationship weakens causal interpretation. Further experimental research is warranted to elucidate this important question

    A cryogenic rotation stage with a large clear aperture for the half-wave plates in the Spider instrument

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    We describe the cryogenic half-wave plate rotation mechanisms built for and used in Spider, a polarization-sensitive balloon-borne telescope array that observed the Cosmic Microwave Background at 95 GHz and 150 GHz during a stratospheric balloon flight from Antarctica in January 2015. The mechanisms operate at liquid helium temperature in flight. A three-point contact design keeps the mechanical bearings relatively small but allows for a large (305 mm) diameter clear aperture. A worm gear driven by a cryogenic stepper motor allows for precise positioning and prevents undesired rotation when the motors are depowered. A custom-built optical encoder system monitors the bearing angle to an absolute accuracy of +/- 0.1 degrees. The system performed well in Spider during its successful 16 day flight.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, Published in Review of Scientific Instruments. v2 includes reviewer changes and longer literature revie

    Urine selenium concentration is a useful biomarker for assessing population level selenium status

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    Plasma selenium (Se) concentration is an established population level biomarker of Se status, especially in Se-deficient populations. Previously observed correlations between dietary Se intake and urinary Se excretion suggest that urine Se concentration is also a potentially viable biomarker of Se status. However, there are only limited data on urine Se concentration among Se-deficient populations. Here, we test if urine is a viable biomarker for assessing Se status among a large sample of women and children in Malawi, most of whom are likely to be Se-deficient based on plasma Se status. Casual (spot) urine samples (n = 1406) were collected from a nationally representative sample of women of reproductive age (WRA, n =741) and school aged children (SAC, n=665) across Malawi as part of the 2015/16 Demographic and Health Survey. Selenium concentration in urine was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urinary dilution corrections for specific gravity, osmolality, and creatinine were applied to adjust for hydration status. Plasma Se status had been measured for the same survey participants. There was between-cluster variation in urine Se concentration that corresponded with variation in plasma Se concentration, but not between households within a cluster, or between individuals within a household. Corrected urine Se concentrations explained more of the between-cluster variation in plasma Se concentration than uncorrected data. These results provide new evidence that urine may be used in the surveillance of Se status at the population level in some groups. This could be a cost-effective option if urine samples are already being collected for other assessments, such as for iodine status analysis as in the Malawi and other national Demographic and Health Surveys

    Design of 280 GHz feedhorn-coupled TES arrays for the balloon-borne polarimeter SPIDER

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    We describe 280 GHz bolometric detector arrays that instrument the balloon-borne polarimeter SPIDER. A primary science goal of SPIDER is to measure the large-scale B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the cosmic-inflation, gravitational-wave signature. 280 GHz channels aid this science goal by constraining the level of B-mode contamination from galactic dust emission. We present the focal plane unit design, which consists of a 16×\times16 array of conical, corrugated feedhorns coupled to a monolithic detector array fabricated on a 150 mm diameter silicon wafer. Detector arrays are capable of polarimetric sensing via waveguide probe-coupling to a multiplexed array of transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers. The SPIDER receiver has three focal plane units at 280 GHz, which in total contains 765 spatial pixels and 1,530 polarization sensitive bolometers. By fabrication and measurement of single feedhorns, we demonstrate 14.7^{\circ} FHWM Gaussian-shaped beams with <<1% ellipticity in a 30% fractional bandwidth centered at 280 GHz. We present electromagnetic simulations of the detection circuit, which show 94% band-averaged, single-polarization coupling efficiency, 3% reflection and 3% radiative loss. Lastly, we demonstrate a low thermal conductance bolometer, which is well-described by a simple TES model and exhibits an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) = 2.6 ×\times 1017^{-17} W/Hz\sqrt{\mathrm{Hz}}, consistent with the phonon noise prediction.Comment: Proceedings of SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation 201