3,575 research outputs found

    'Memory, hither come':Psychopharmacology of memory and more

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    Palmoplantar keratoderma along with neuromuscular and metabolic phenotypes in Slurp1-deficient mice.

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    Mutations in SLURP1 cause mal de Meleda, a rare palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK). SLURP1 is a secreted protein that is expressed highly in keratinocytes but has also been identified elsewhere (e.g., spinal cord neurons). Here, we examined Slurp1-deficient mice (Slurp1(-/-)) created by replacing exon 2 with β-gal and neo cassettes. Slurp1(-/-) mice developed severe PPK characterized by increased keratinocyte proliferation, an accumulation of lipid droplets in the stratum corneum, and a water barrier defect. In addition, Slurp1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced adiposity, protection from obesity on a high-fat diet, low plasma lipid levels, and a neuromuscular abnormality (hind-limb clasping). Initially, it was unclear whether the metabolic and neuromuscular phenotypes were due to Slurp1 deficiency, because we found that the targeted Slurp1 mutation reduced the expression of several neighboring genes (e.g., Slurp2, Lypd2). We therefore created a new line of knockout mice (Slurp1X(-/-) mice) with a simple nonsense mutation in exon 2. The Slurp1X mutation did not reduce the expression of adjacent genes, but Slurp1X(-/-) mice exhibited all of the phenotypes observed in the original line of knockout mice. Thus, Slurp1 deficiency in mice elicits metabolic and neuromuscular abnormalities in addition to PPK

    A transdiagnostic systematic review and meta-analysis of ketamine's anxiolytic effects

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    Background:Ketamine may be effective in treating symptoms of anxiety, but the time profile of ketamine’s anxiolytic effect is ill-defined. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the anxiolytic effect of ketamine at different time points across a range of clinical settings.Methods:Electronic databases were searched to capture randomised control trials measuring the anxiolytic effects of ketamine in contexts including mood disorders, anxiety disorders and chronic pain. Meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model. The correlations between (1) improvements in mean anxiety and depression scores, and (2) peak dissociation and improvements in mean anxiety scores were also assessed.Results:In all, 14 studies met inclusion criteria. Risk of bias was high in 11 studies. Ketamine significantly reduced anxiety scores compared to placebo at acute (<12 h; standard mean difference (SMD): −1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) [−1.89, −0.44], p < 0.01), subacute (24 h; SMD: −0.44, 95% CI [−0.65, −0.22], p < 0.01) and sustained (7–14 days; SMD: −0.40, 95% CI [−0.63, −0.17], p < 0.01) time points. Exploratory analyses revealed improvements in anxiety and depression symptoms correlated at both subacute (R2 = 0.621, p = 0.035) and sustained time points (R2 = 0.773, p = 0.021). The relationship between peak dissociation and improvement in anxiety was not significant.Conclusions:Ketamine appears to offer rapid and sustained anxiety symptom relief across a range of clinical settings, with anxiolytic effects occurring within the first 12 h of administration and remaining effective for 1–2 weeks. Future studies could explore the effects of ketamine maintenance therapy on anxiety symptoms