108 research outputs found

    Physicochemical and Microstructural Characterization of Whey Protein Films Formed with Oxidized Ferulic/Tannic Acids

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    Protein-based biodegradable packaging films are of environmental significance. The effect of oxidized ferulic acid (OFA)/tannic acid (OTA) on the crosslinking and film-forming properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. Both of the oxidized acids induced protein oxidation and promoted WPI crosslinking through the actions of quinone carbonyl and protein sulfhydryl, and amino groups. OTA enhanced the tensile strength (from 4.5 MPa to max 6.7 MPa) and stiffness (from 215 MPa to max 376 MPa) of the WPI film, whereas OFA significantly increased the elongation at break. The water absorption capability and heat resistance of the films were greatly improved by the addition of OTA. Due to the original color of OTA, the incorporation of OTA significantly reduced light transmittance of the WPI film (λ 200–600 nm) as well as the transparency, whereas no significant changes were induced by the OFA treatment. Higher concentrations of OTA reduced the in vitro digestibility of the WPI film, while the addition of OFA had no significant effect. Overall, these two oxidized polyphenols promoted the crosslinking of WPI and modified the film properties, with OTA showing an overall stronger efficacy than OFA due to more functional groups available

    The Effect of Batter Characteristics on Protein-Aided Control of Fat Absorption in Deep-Fried Breaded Fish Nuggets

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    Soy protein (SP), egg white protein (EP), and whey protein (WP) at 6% w/w were individually incorporated into the batter of a wheat starch (WS) and wheat gluten (WG) blend (11:1 w/w ratio). Moisture adsorption isotherms of WS and proteins and the viscosity, rheological behavior, and calorimetric properties of the batters were measured. Batter-breaded fish nuggets (BBFNs) were fried at 170 °C for 40 s followed by 190 °C for 30 s, and pick-up of BBFNs, thermogravimetric properties of crust, and fat absorption were determined. The moisture absorption capacity was the greatest for WS, followed by WG, SP, EP, and WP. The addition of SP significantly increased the viscosity and shear moduli (G″, G′) of batter and pick-up of BBFNs, while EP and WP exerted the opposite effect (p \u3c 0.05). SP, EP, and WP raised WS gelatinization and protein denaturation temperatures and crust thermogravimetry temperature, but decreased enthalpy change (ΔH) and oily characteristics of fried BBFNs. These results indicate that hydrophilicity and hydration activity of the added proteins and their interactions with batter matrix starch and gluten reinforced the batter and the thermal stability of crust, thereby inhibiting fat absorption of the BBFNs during deep-fat frying

    The Radiation Structure of PSR B2016++28 Observed with FAST

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    With the largest dish Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST), both the mean and single pulses of PSR B2016++28, especially including the single-pulse structure, are investigated in detail in this study. The mean pulse profiles at different frequencies can be well fitted in a conal model, and the peak separation of intensity-dependent pulse profiles increases with intensity. The integrated pulses are obviously frequency dependent (pulse width decreases by 20%\sim\,20\% as frequency increases from 300 MHz to 750 MHz), but the structure of single pulses changes slightly (the corresponding correlation scale decreases by only 1%\sim\,1\%). This disparity between mean and single pulses provides independent evidence for the existence of the RS-type vacuum inner gap, indicating a strong bond between particles on the pulsar surface. Diffused drifting sub-pulses are analyzed. The results show that the modulation period along pulse series (P3P_3) is positively correlated to the separation between two adjacent sub-pulses (P2P_2). This correlation may hint a rough surface on the pulsar, eventually resulting in the irregular drift of sparks. All the observational results may have significant implications in the dynamics of pulsar magnetosphere and are discussed extensively in this paper.Comment: Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. 62, 959505 (2019

    Study of Three Rotating Radio Transients with FAST

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    Rotating radio transients (RRATs) are peculiar astronomical objects whose emission mechanism remains under investigation. In this paper, we present observations of three RRATs, J1538+2345, J1854+0306 and J1913+1330, observed with the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST). Specifically, we analyze the mean pulse profiles and temporal flux density evolutions of the RRATs. Owing to the high sensitivity of FAST, the derived burst rates of the three RRATs are higher than those in previous reports. RRAT J1854+0306 exhibited a time-dynamic mean pulse profile, whereas RRAT J1913+1330 showed distinct radiation and nulling segments on its pulse intensity trains. The mean pulse profile variation with frequency is also studied for RRAT J1538+2345 and RRAT J1913+1330, and the profiles at different frequencies could be well fitted with a cone-core model and a conal-beam model, respectively.Comment: Sci. China-Phys. Mech. Astron. 62, 959503 (2019

    Whole brain radiotherapy plus simultaneous in-field boost with image guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for brain metastases of non-small cell lung cancer

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    BACKGROUND: Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) plus sequential focal radiation boost is a commonly used therapeutic strategy for patients with brain metastases. However, recent reports on WBRT plus simultaneous in-field boost (SIB) also showed promising outcomes. The objective of present study is to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of WBRT plus SIB with image guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for inoperable brain metastases of NSCLC. METHODS: Twenty-nine NSCLC patients with 87 inoperable brain metastases were included in this retrospective study. All patients received WBRT at a dose of 40 Gy/20 f, and SIB boost with IG-IMRT at a dose of 20 Gy/5 f concurrent with WBRT in the fourth week. Prior to each fraction of IG-IMRT boost, on-line positioning verification and correction were used to ensure that the set-up errors were within 2 mm by cone beam computed tomography in all patients. RESULTS: The one-year intracranial control rate, local brain failure rate, and distant brain failure rate were 62.9%, 13.8%, and 19.2%, respectively. The two-year intracranial control rate, local brain failure rate, and distant brain failure rate were 42.5%, 30.9%, and 36.4%, respectively. Both median intracranial progression-free survival and median survival were 10 months. Six-month, one-year, and two-year survival rates were 65.5%, 41.4%, and 13.8%, corresponding to 62.1%, 41.4%, and 10.3% of intracranial progression-free survival rates. Patients with Score Index for Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases (SIR) >5, number of intracranial lesions <3, and history of EGFR-TKI treatment had better survival. Three lesions (3.45%) demonstrated radiation necrosis after radiotherapy. Grades 2 and 3 cognitive impairment with grade 2 radiation leukoencephalopathy were observed in 4 (13.8%) and 4 (13.8%) patients. No dosimetric parameters were found to be associated with these late toxicities. Patients received EGFR-TKI treatment had higher incidence of grades 2–3 cognitive impairment with grade 2 leukoencephalopathy. CONCLUSIONS: WBRT plus SIB with IG-IMRT is a tolerable and effective treatment for NSCLC patients with inoperable brain metastases. However, the results of present study need to be examined by the prospective investigations

    Rapid detection of newly isolated Tembusu-related Flavivirus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>From April 2010 to January 2011, a severe new viral disease had devastated most duck-farming regions in China. This disease affected not only laying ducks but also meat ducks, causing huge economic losses for the poultry industry. The objective of this study is to develop a one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of the new virus related to Tembusu-related Flavivirus.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The RT-LAMP assay is very simple and rapid, and the amplification can be completed within 50 min under isothermal conditions at 63°C by a set of 6 primers targeting the E gene based on the sequences analysis of the newly isolated viruses and other closely related Flavivirus.The monitoring of gene amplification can also be visualized by using SYBR green I fluorescent dye. In addition, the RT-LAMP assay for newly isolated Tembusu-related Flavivirus showed higher sensitivity with an RNA detection-limit of 2 copies/μL compared with 190 copies/μL of the conventional RT-PCR method. The specificity was identified without cross reaction to other common avian pathogens. By screening a panel of clinical samples this method was more feasible in clinical settings and there was higher positive coincidence rate than conventional RT-PCR and virus isolation.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The RT-LAMP assay for newly isolated Tembusu-related Flavivirus is a valuable tool for the rapid and real-time detection not only in well-equipped laboratories but also in general conditions.</p