7 research outputs found

    Poly I:C enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in an IL-7-dependent manner.

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    <p>B6.NOD-<i>Aec</i> mice were injected with poly I:C plus IgG or anti-IL-7Rα antibody as described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077605#pone-0077605-g004" target="_blank">Figure 4</a>. (A) IL-7 mRNA levels in the submandibular glands of non-poly I:C- or poly I:C-treated B6.NOD-<i>Aec</i> mice. (B) Flow cytometric analyses of leukocyte subpopulations among mononuclear cells in submandibular glands. (C) Percentage of IFN-γ<sup>+</sup> T cells in total submandibular gland cells, splenocytes and dr LN cells based on flow cytometric analysis. Data are representative of or the average of the analyses of 7 individual mice (1-3 mice per experiment, total 4 independent experiments). </p

    Poly I:C induces IL-7 expression in the submandibular glands.

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    <p>(A) Real-time PCR analysis of gene expression in submandibular glands from C57BL/6 mice 6 hours post poly I:C injection, presented relative to that of β-actin. Data are the average of analyses of 6 individual mice (3 mice per experiment, total 2 independent experiments). (B) Immunofluorescence staining of IL-7 in submandibular gland sections from C57BL/6 mice 24 hourse post poly I:C injection. Differential interference contrast (DIC) image of the same sample is also shown. Data are representative of analyses of 6 individual mice (3 mice per experiment, total 2 independent experiments). (C) C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with anti-IFNAR1 or anti-IFN-γ 2 hours prior to poly I:C injection. After 6 hours, relative IL-7 mRNA levels in lung tissue were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Data are from analyses of 6 individual mice (2 mice per experiment, total 3 independent experiments). </p

    NK cells contribute to the early up-regulation of CXCR3 ligands induced by poly I:C.

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    <p>(A) C57BL/6 mice were treated with poly I:C by for the indicated amount of time. Left panels, surface staining for immune cell populations in the submandibular glands, with the gating indicated above the plots. Right panels, Percentage of NK1.1<sup>+</sup> TCR-β<sup>+</sup>, TCR-γδ<sup>+</sup>, CD4<sup>+</sup> and CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells among total submandibular gland cells. All data are the average of or representative of 5 individual mice (2-3 mice per experiment, total 2 independent experiments). (B) RAG-1<sup>-/-</sup> mice were pre-treated with anti-NK1.1 antibody 2 days prior to poly I:C injection. Submandibular glands were harvested 6 hours after poly I:C injection and measured for gene expression by real time PCR. Data are from analyses of 4 individual mice (2 mice per experiment, total 2 independent experiments). </p

    Poly I:C induces production of IL-7 in human salivary gland epithelial cells.

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    <p>(A) HSG cells were cultured <i>in </i><i>vitro</i> with or without poly I:C for 1 and 3 days. IL-7 mRNA levels, left panel, and protein concentrations in culture supernatants, right panel, assessed by real time PCR and ELISA, respectively. (B) HSG cells were treated with IFN-α, IFN-γ or both for 1 and 3 days, and then measured for IL-7 mRNA levels. (C) HSG cells were treated with poly I:C in the presence of control IgG or anti-human IL-7 for 1 or 3 days, and then measured for BAFF mRNA expression. All PCR results are presented relative to that of GAPDH. All data are the average of analyses of 6 independent samples for each group (3 samples per experiment, total 2 independent experiments). </p

    Poly I:C upregulates expression of CXCR3 ligands in submandibular glands in an IL-7-dependent fashion

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    <p>C57BL/6 mice were pre-treated with anti-IL-7Rα 2 hours prior to poly I:C injection. (A) Levels of CXCL9, 10, 11 and CXCR3 mRNA were measured from submandibular glands 24 hours after poly I:C administration, presented relative to that of β-actin. (B) Submandibular gland sections stained with CXCL9 and DRAQ5. All data are the average of or representative of 6 individual mice (2 mice per experiment, total 3 independent experiments).</p

    Pattern of flower size variation along an altitudinal gradient differs between <i>Impatiens textori</i> and <i>Impatiens noli-tangere</i>

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    <p>Studies of factors influencing spatial variation in flower size offer insights into floral evolution. We investigated altitudinal variations in five flower dimensions of two native Japanese <i>Impatiens</i> species (<i>I. textori</i> and <i>I. noli-tangere</i>) and their interactions with their faunal visitors. These two species have similar floral traits, including flower shape, flowering time, and pollinator species; both species are pollinated mainly by <i>Bombus diversus</i>. In <i>I. textori</i>, all measured flower dimensions were negatively correlated with altitude. In contrast, in <i>I. noli-tangere</i>, no measured flower dimensions correlated with altitude. Thus, the altitudinal pattern of flower size variation differed between these congeneric co-habiting herbaceous plant species. The different patterns suggest that the factors (e.g. altitudinal variations of abiotic factors) that cause variation of flower size differ between these two <i>Impatiens</i> species even though focal species have similar floral traits (e.g. flower shape, flowering time, and pollinator species).</p
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