38,155 research outputs found

    Relic abundance of dark matter particles: new formulation and new result of abundance calculation

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    A new theoretical framework for computation of the relic abundance of cold dark matter particles such as LSP is presented and some generic features of new results are discussed. The most important is a generalization of the Boltzmann equation to include off-shell effects and its thermal average over cosmic medium. It is shown that at very low temperatures, much below the mass of annihilating particles, equilibrium abundance is suppressed only by powers of temperature instead of the exponential Boltzmann factor. This change gives a larger relic abundance when heavy particles freeze out at these low temperatures.Comment: 7 pages, LATEX file. Talk given at COSMO9

    Catastrophic Particle Production under Periodic Perturbation

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    We develop a formalism to investigate the behavior of quantum field and quantum ground state when the field is coupled to perturbation that periodically oscillates. Working in the Schroedinger picture of quantum field theory, we confirm that the phenomenon of parametric resonance in the classical theory implies an instability of quantum vacuum, and correspondingly it gives rise to catastrophic particle production if the oscillation lasts indefinitely; the produced number of particles exponentially increases without bound as time proceeds. The density matrix describing the limiting stage of the quantum state is determined by a small set of parameters. Moreover, the energy spectrum and the intensity of produced particles are worked out in greatest detail in the limit of weak coupling or small amplitude perturbation. In the case of strong coupling or large amplitude perturbation the leading adiabatic formula is derived. Application to cosmological fate of weakly interacting spinless fields (WISF) such as the invisible axion, the Polonyi, and the modular fields is discussed. Although very little effect is expected on the invisible axion, the Polonyi type field has a chance that it catastrophically decays at an early epoch without much production of entropy, provided that an intrinsic coupling is large enough.Comment: 33 page

    Towards Resolution of Hierarchy Problems in a Cosmological Context

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    A cosmological scenario is proposed, which simultaneously solves the mass hierarchy and the small dark energy problem. In the present scenario an effective gravity mass scale (inverse of the Newton's constant) increases during the inflationary period. The small cosmological constant or the dark energy density in the present universe is dynamically realized by introducing two, approximately O(2) symmetric dilatons, taking the fundamental mass scale at TeV.Comment: 12 pages, no figur

    Application of design sensitivity analysis for greater improvement on machine structural dynamics

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    Methodologies are presented for greatly improving machine structural dynamics by using design sensitivity analyses and evaluative parameters. First, design sensitivity coefficients and evaluative parameters of structural dynamics are described. Next, the relations between the design sensitivity coefficients and the evaluative parameters are clarified. Then, design improvement procedures of structural dynamics are proposed for the following three cases: (1) addition of elastic structural members, (2) addition of mass elements, and (3) substantial charges of joint design variables. Cases (1) and (2) correspond to the changes of the initial framework or configuration, and (3) corresponds to the alteration of poor initial design variables. Finally, numerical examples are given for demonstrating the availability of the methods proposed
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