104 research outputs found

    Quantity and quality of antigravity muscles in patients undergoing living-donor lobar lung transplantation: 1-year longitudinal analysis using chest computed tomography images

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    Background: Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a common feature in patients with severe lung diseases. Although lung transplantation aims to save these patients, the surgical procedure and disuse may cause additional deterioration and prolonged functional disability. We investigated the postoperative course of antigravity muscle condition in terms of quantity and quality using chest computed tomography. Methods: 35 consecutive patients were investigated for 12 months after living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). The erector spinae muscles (ESMs), which are antigravity muscles, were evaluated, and the cross-sectional area (ESMCSA) and mean attenuation (ESMCT) were analysed to determine the quantity and quality of ESMs. Functional capacity was evaluated by the 6-min walk distance (6MWD). Age-matched living donors with lower lobectomy were evaluated as controls. Results: Recipient and donor ESMCSA values temporarily decreased at 3 months and recovered by 12 months post-operatively. The ESMCSA of recipients, but not that of donors, surpassed baseline values by 12 months post-operatively. Increased ESMCSA (ratio to baseline ≥1) may occur at 12 months in patients with a high baseline ESMCT. Although the recipient ESMCT may continuously decrease for 12 months, the ESMCT is a major determinant, in addition to lung function, of the postoperative 6MWD at both 3 and 12 months. Conclusion: The quantity of ESMs may increase within 12 months after LDLLT in recipients with better muscle quality at baseline. The quality of ESMs is also important for physical performance; therefore, further approaches to prevent deterioration in muscle quality are required

    Evaluation of sample size effect on the identification of haplotype blocks

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Genome-wide maps of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotypes have been created for different populations. Substantial sharing of the boundaries and haplotypes among populations was observed, but haplotype variations have also been reported across populations. Conflicting observations on the extent and distribution of haplotypes require careful examination. The mechanisms that shape haplotypes have not been fully explored, although the effect of sample size has been implicated. We present a close examination of the effect of sample size on haplotype blocks using an original computational simulation.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A region spanning 19.31 Mb on chromosome 20q was genotyped for 1,147 SNPs in 725 Japanese subjects. One region of 445 kb exhibiting a single strong LD value (average |D'|; 0.94) was selected for the analysis of sample size effect on haplotype structure. Three different block definitions (recombination-based, LD-based, and diversity-based) were exploited to create simulations for block identification with <it>θ </it>value from real genotyping data. As a result, it was quite difficult to estimate a haplotype block for data with less than 200 samples. Attainment of a reliable haplotype structure with 50 samples was not possible, although the simulation was repeated 10,000 times.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These analyses underscored the difficulties of estimating haplotype blocks. To acquire a reliable result, it would be necessary to increase sample size more than 725 and to repeat the simulation 3,000 times. Even in one genomic region showing a high LD value, the haplotype block might be fragile. We emphasize the importance of applying careful confidence measures when using the estimated haplotype structure in biomedical research.</p

    Evaluation of sample size effect on the identification of haplotype blocks

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    Background: Genome-wide maps of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotypes have been created for different populations. Substantial sharing of the boundaries and haplotypes among populations was observed, but haplotype variations have also been reported across populations. Conflicting observations on the extent and distribution of haplotypes require careful examination. The mechanisms that shape haplotypes have not been fully explored, although the effect of sample size has been implicated. We present a close examination of the effect of sample size on haplotype blocks using an original computational simulation. Results: A region spanning 19.31 Mb on chromosome 20q was genotyped for 1,147 SNPs in 725 Japanese subjects. One region of 445 kb exhibiting a single strong LD value (average |D'|; 0.94) was selected for the analysis of sample size effect on haplotype structure. Three different block definitions (recombination-based, LD-based, and diversity-based) were exploited to create simulations for block identification with θ value from real genotyping data. As a result, it was quite difficult to estimate a haplotype block for data with less than 200 samples. Attainment of a reliable haplotype structure with 50 samples was not possible, although the simulation was repeated 10,000 times. Conclusion: These analyses underscored the difficulties of estimating haplotype blocks. To acquire a reliable result, it would be necessary to increase sample size more than 725 and to repeat the simulation 3,000 times. Even in one genomic region showing a high LD value, the haplotype block might be fragile. We emphasize the importance of applying careful confidence measures when using the estimated haplotype structure in biomedical research

    Autoantibody to dihydropyridine receptor in myasthenia gravis

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    金沢大学保健管理センターTo investigate autoantibodies related to excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), we developed a novel method to detect autoantibodies against dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR). Using this method, we detected DHPR antibody in 37% (11 out of 30) of MG patients with thymoma. Antibodies were not detected in normal nor disease controls. The titer of DHPR antibodies showed no significant correlation with autoantibodies to acetylcholine nor ryanodine receptors. The DHPR antibody is another marker for thymoma in MG, and it might have some role in clinical symptoms related to E-C coupling. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Complication of portal vein thrombosis after right hemihepatectomy in a patient lacking the portal vein bifurcation

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    Absence of portal vein bifurcation is a rare anomaly. We report a patient with this anomaly who underwent right hemihepatectomy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the procedure was carefully performed with a preoperative three-dimensional simulation and intraoperative cholangiography, postoperative portal vein thrombosis occurred

    ヒト細胞傷害性γδT細胞は膠芽腫細胞株を殺傷する:膠芽腫患者に対する免疫細胞治療の意義

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    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor for which novel therapeutic approaches, such as immunotherapy, are urgently needed. Zoledronate (ZOL), an inhibitor of osteoclastic activity, is known to stimulate peripheral blood-derived γδT cells and sensitize tumors to γδT cell-mediated killing. To investigate the feasibility of γδT cell-based immunotherapy for patients with GBM, we focused on the killing of GBM cell lines by γδT cells and the molecular mechanisms involved in these cell–cell interactions. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were expanded in ZOL and interleukin (IL)-2 for 14 days, and γδT cells were enriched in the expanded cells by the immunomagnetic depletion of αβT cells. Gliomas are resistant to NK cells but susceptible to lymphokine-activated killer cells and some cytotoxic T lymphocytes. When the γδT cell-mediated killing of three GBM cell lines (U87MG, U138MG and A172 cells) and an NK-sensitive leukemia cell line (K562 cells) were tested, 32 % U87MG, 15 % U138MG, 1 % A172, and 50 % K562 cells were killed at an effector:target ratio of 5:1. The γδT cell-mediated killing of all three GBM cell lines was significantly enhanced by ZOL and this ZOL-enhanced killing was blocked by an anti-T cell receptor (TcR) antibody. These results indicated that TcR γδ is crucial for the recognition of ZOL-treated GBM cells by γδT cells. Since the low level killing of GBM cells by the γδT cells was enhanced by ZOL, γδT cell-targeting therapy in combination with ZOL treatment could be effective for patients with GBM.博士(医学)・甲第635号・平成27年5月28日© Springer Verlag. The definitive version is available at " http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-013-1258-4

    Elevated Preoperative Serum CEA Level Is with Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Poor Prognosis Through the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

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    Background: Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is used as an indicator of tumor progression in a variety of carcinomas. A subset of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit increased serum CEA level, but the significance of this is unclear. In this study, we investigated the prognosis of patients with HCC with increased serum CEA, and explored the correlations with expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor angiogenesis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-three patients with HCC who underwent radical resection were divided into two groups according to a cut-off value of 5.0 ng/ml for serum CEA: high (n=24) and normal (n=99) groups. We compared the clinicopathological factors with serum CEA levels and its correlations with CEACAM1 expression, EMT-related factors and microvessel density (MVD) of tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry. Results: In the high CEA group, the disease-free survival (DFS) rate was significantly worse than in the normal CEA group. Multivariate analysis revealed that a high CEA level was an independent factor predictive of recurrence. Furthermore, increased serum CEA levels were positively correlated with CEACAM1 expression. Moreover, CEACAM1 expression was positively correlated with expression of EMT-related factors and MVD of tumor tissues. Conclusion: Increased serum CEA level reflected CEACAM1 expression and was an independent factor predictive of recurrence in HCC through EMT and tumor angiogenesis
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