3,733 research outputs found

    Proton and Helium Spectra from the First Flight of the CREAM Balloon-Borne Experiment

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    Cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra have been measured with the balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment flown for 42 days in Antarctica in the 2004-2005 austral summer season. High-energy cosmic-ray data were collected at an average altitude of ∼38.5 km with an average atmospheric overburden of ∼3.9 g/cm2. Individual elements are clearly separated with a charge resolution of ∼0.15e (in charge units) and ∼0.2e, respectively, for protons and helium nuclei. The measured spectra at the top of the atmosphere are represented by a power law with a spectral index of -2.66 ± 0.02 for protons from 2.5 TeV to 250 TeV and -2.58 ± 0.02 for helium nuclei from 630 GeV/nucleon to 63 TeV/nucleon. The measured proton and helium spectra are harder than previous measurements at a few tens of GeV/nucleon. Possible explanations of this spectral hardening could be the effect of a relatively nearby source or the effect of spectral concavity caused by interactions of cosmic rays with the accelerating shock. The helium flux is higher than that expected from extrapolation of a power-law fit to the lower-energy data. The relative abundance of protons to helium nuclei is about 8.8 ± 0.5 in the range from 2.5 TeV/nucleon to 63 TeV/nucleon. In this thesis, the analysis of proton and helium spectra will be discussed

    The Evaluation of the Body Weight Lowering Effects of Herbal Extract THI on Exercising Healthy Overweight Humans: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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    We investigated the effects of herbal extracts, a mixture of Scutellariae Radix and Platycodi Radix containing the active ingredients Baicalin and Saponin (target herbal ingredient (THI)), on lowering body weight. The present study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial carried out at the outpatient department of a hospital over a period of 2 months. Group 1 patients (n=30) received THI, and group 2 patients (n=23) received placebo three times a day before meals. Weight, waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose were measured at baseline and again at the 2nd month. For safety evaluation, various hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Values of mean change of weight in the THI-treated group were −1.16±1.41 kg and in the placebo-treated group were −0.24±1.70 kg, respectively. The difference in mean change of weight in the THI-treated group compared with that in the placebo-treated group was statistically significant (P<0.05). The incidence of subjective and objective adverse drug reactions was insignificant (P>0.05). THI was statistically significant in its effectiveness on the weight loss

    Investigation of the SH3BP2 Gene Mutation in Cherubism

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    Cherubism is a rare developmental lesion of the jaw that is generally inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Recent studies have revealed point mutations in the SH3BP2 gene in cherubism patients. In this study, we examined a 6-year-old Korean boy and his family. We found a Pro418Arg mutation in the SH3BP2 gene of the patient and his mother. A father and his 30-month-old younger brother had no mutations. Immunohistochemically, the multinucleated giant cells proved positive for CD68 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Numerous spindle-shaped stromal cells expressed a ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kB (RANKL), but not in multinucleated giant cells. These results provide evidence that RANKL plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells to multinucleated giant cells in cherubism. Additionally, genetic analysis may be a useful method for differentiation of cherubism.</p