20,524 research outputs found

    Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

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    Solar cells were fabricated from EFG ribbons dendritic webs, cast ingots by heat exchanger method, and cast ingots by ubiquitous crystallization process. Baseline and other process variations were applied to fabricate solar cells. EFG ribbons grown in a carbon-containing gas atmosphere showed significant improvement in silicon quality. Baseline solar cells from dendritic webs of various runs indicated that the quality of the webs under investigation was not as good as the conventional CZ silicon, showing an average minority carrier diffusion length of about 60 um versus 120 um of CZ wafers. Detail evaluation of large cast ingots by HEM showed ingot reproducibility problems from run to run and uniformity problems of sheet quality within an ingot. Initial evaluation of the wafers prepared from the cast polycrystalline ingots by UCP suggested that the quality of the wafers from this process is considerably lower than the conventional CZ wafers. Overall performance was relatively uniform, except for a few cells which showed shunting problems caused by inclusions

    Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication, and analysis

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    Two large cast ingots were evaluated. Solar cell performance versus substrate position within the ingots was obtained and the results are presented. Dendritic web samples were analyzed in terms of structural defects, and efforts were made to correlate the data with the performance of solar cells made from the webs

    Silicon Solar Cell Process Development, Fabrication and Analysis, Phase 1

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    Solar cells from RTR ribbons, EFG (RF and RH) ribbons, dendritic webs, Silso wafers, cast silicon by HEM, silicon on ceramic, and continuous Czochralski ingots were fabricated using a standard process typical of those used currently in the silicon solar cell industry. Back surface field (BSF) processing and other process modifications were included to give preliminary indications of possible improved performance. The parameters measured included open circuit voltage, short circuit current, curve fill factor, and conversion efficiency (all taken under AM0 illumination). Also measured for typical cells were spectral response, dark I-V characteristics, minority carrier diffusion length, and photoresponse by fine light spot scanning. the results were compared to the properties of cells made from conventional single crystalline Czochralski silicon with an emphasis on statistical evaluation. Limited efforts were made to identify growth defects which will influence solar cell performance

    Physics reach of LHC with 1 fb−1 at √s = 7 TeV

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    The √ physics reach of the ATLAS and CMS experiments for √s = 7TeV at LHC is reviewed. In particular the measurement of Standard Model processes, the search for the Higgs boson as well as the discovery potential for various Beyond the Standard models are discussed

    Two Methods for the Computation of Commercial Pipe Friction Factors

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    Two methods are proposed for the computation of friction factors of commercial pipes. The first method applies the mean value of the zero velocity point (MZVP) to a theoretical friction factor equation, and the other directly computes the mean friction factor (MFF) by averaging the friction factor of both the smooth and rough walls while considering their relative contribution. The MFF method is preferred, because it is simple but covers all the flow characteristics of commercial pipes. Both MFF and MZVP methods consider two parts of a wall with different roughness heights: One part is rough and the other is smooth. A regression analysis was performed to determine optimum values of the roughness height and probability of encountering each part, using several sets of field data, including galvanized iron, wrought iron, cast iron, concrete, riveted steel, and concrete. The analysis showed that both the roughness height and the relative contribution of the rough part are strongly dependent on the pipe diameter. The MFF method gave an average error of less than 3%, whereas the traditional Colebrook–White equation gave an average error of more than 11% when compared with Colebrook’s data

    Double-Well Potential : The WKB Approximation with Phase Loss and Anharmonicity Effect

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    We derive a general WKB energy splitting formula in a double-well potential by incorporating both phase loss and anharmonicity effect in the usual WKB approximation. A bare application of the phase loss approach to the usual WKB method gives better results only for large separation between two potential minima. In the range of substantial tunneling, however, the phase loss approach with anharmonicity effect considered leads to a great improvement on the accuracy of the WKB approximation.Comment: 14 pages, revtex, 1 figure, will appear at Phys. Rev.

    Complex microwave conductivity of Na-DNA powders

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    We report the complex microwave conductivity, σ=σ1iσ2\sigma=\sigma_1-i\sigma_2, of Na-DNA powders, which was measured from 80 K to 300 K by using a microwave cavity perturbation technique. We found that the magnitude of σ1\sigma_1 near room temperature was much larger than the contribution of the surrounding water molecules, and that the decrease of σ1\sigma_1 with decreasing temperature was sufficiently stronger than that of the conduction of counterions. These results clearly suggest that the electrical conduction of Na-DNA is intrinsically semiconductive.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figure