56 research outputs found

    Small mitochondrial ARF (smARF) is located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, induces cell death, and activates p53 in mouse fibroblasts

    Get PDF
    AbstractThe ARF transcript produces two proteins, the full-length ARF, p19ARF, and a short mitochondrial version, smARF. To explore the functional difference between the two, we generated GFP-fused expression vectors for each protein and introduced them into NIH3T3 murine fibroblasts, which sustains a global deletion in the INK4a locus but contains a functional p53 gene. GFP-p19ARF was located within the nucleolus as previously reported, whereas GFP-smARF was detected mainly in the nucleoplasm. GFP-smARF induced cell death although to a slightly lesser extent than p19ARF. GFP-smARF stabilized p53 thereby inducing expression of the target genes, MDM2 and p21. We suggest that smARF has functions other than mitochondria-mediated autophagy, and induces p53 expression and cell death via a novel mechanism

    複数異種移植マウスモデルにおけるPentagamavunone-1の膵臓癌に対する単剤および併用療法としての前臨床評価

    Get PDF
    We previously reported that pentagamavunone-1 (PGV-1) effectively inhibited cell proliferation in many types of human tumors, including pancreatic cancer, by inducing M phase (prometaphase) arrest, senescence, and apoptosis with few side effects. However, a detailed evaluation of the effects of PGV-1 on pancreatic cancer cells in an in vivo setting has not yet been conducted. The present study investigated the potential efficacy of PGV-1 as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pancreatic cancer using multiple xenograft mouse assays. A cell-line derived xenograft model (CDX-M) with pancreatic cancer cell line and a patient-derived xenograft mouse model (PDX-M) using resected pancreatic cancer samples without neoadjuvant chemotherapy were established in both heterotopic and orthotopic manners. PGV-1 effectively suppressed tumor formation at the heterotopic and orthotopic sites in CDX-M than in untreated mice. Combination therapy with PGV-1 and gemcitabine more effectively suppressed tumor formation than monotherapy with PGV-1 or gemcitabine when administered after tumor formation. Monotherapy with PGV-1 or gemcitabine less effectively suppressed tumor formation in PDX-M than in CDX-M, whereas combination therapy with PGV-1 and gemcitabine more effectively suppressed tumor formation. PGV-1 as monotherapy and combination therapy with gemcitabine effectively inhibited tumor formation and has potential as an anticancer candidate for pancreatic cancer.権利情報:© The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

    CSN5/Jab1 controls multiple events in the mammalian cell cycle

    Get PDF
    AbstractThe COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex is critical for mammalian cell proliferation and survival, but it is not known how the CSN affects the cell cycle. In this study, MEFs lacking CSN5/Jab1 were generated using a CRE-flox system. MEFs ceased to proliferate upon elimination of CSN5/Jab1. Rescue experiments indicated that the JAMM domain of CSN5/Jab1 was essential. CSN5/Jab1-elimination enhanced the neddylation of cullins 1 and 4 and altered the expression of many factors including cyclin E and p53. CSN5/Jab1-elimination inhibited progression of the cell cycle at multiple points, seemed to initiate p53-independent senescence and increased the ploidy of cells. Thus, CSN5/Jab1 controls different events of the cell cycle, preventing senescence and endocycle as well as the proper progression of the somatic cell cycle.Structured summaryMINT-8046253: Csn1 (uniprotkb:Q99LD4) physically interacts (MI:0914) with Csn5 (uniprotkb:O35864), Csn8 (uniprotkb:Q8VBV7), Csn3 (uniprotkb:O88543), Csn7b (uniprotkb:Q8BV13) and Csn6 (uniprotkb:O88545) by anti bait coimmunoprecipitation (MI:0006

    The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    Get PDF
    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression profiles of X-linked genes. Tissues whose tissue-specific genes are very highly expressed (e.g., secretory tissues, tissues abundant in structural proteins) are also tissues in which gene expression is relatively rare on the X chromosome. These trends cannot be fully accounted for in terms of alternative models of biased expression. In conclusion, the notion that it is hard for genes on the Therian X to be highly expressed, owing to transcriptional traffic jams, provides a simple yet robustly supported rationale of many peculiar features of X's gene content, gene expression, and evolution

    Shuttling Imbalance of MLF1 Results in p53 Instability and Increases Susceptibility to Oncogenic Transformation▿ †

    No full text
    Myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) stabilizes the activity of the tumor suppressor p53 by suppressing its E3 ubiquitin ligase, COP1, through a third component of the COP9 signalosome (CSN3). However, little is known about how MLF1 functions upstream of the CSN3-COP1-p53 pathway and how its deregulation by the formation of the fusion protein nucleophosmin (NPM)-MLF1, generated by t(3;5)(q25.1;q34) chromosomal translocation, leads to leukemogenesis. Here we show that MLF1 is a cytoplasmic-nuclear-shuttling protein and that its nucleolar localization on fusing with NPM prevents the full induction of p53 by both genotoxic and oncogenic cellular stress. The majority of MLF1 was located in the cytoplasm, but the treatment of cells with leptomycin B rapidly induced a nuclear accumulation of MLF1. A mutation of the nuclear export signal (NES) motif identified in the MLF1 sequence enhanced the antiproliferative activity of MLF1. The fusion of MLF1 with NPM translocated MLF1 to the nucleolus and abolished the growth-suppressing activity. The introduction of NPM-MLF1 into early-passage murine embryonic fibroblasts allowed the cells to escape from cellular senescence at a markedly earlier stage and induced neoplastic transformation in collaboration with the oncogenic form of Ras. Interestingly, disruption of the MLF1-derived NES sequence completely abolished the growth-promoting activity of NPM-MLF1 in murine fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells. Thus, our results provide important evidence that the shuttling of MLF1 is critical for the regulation of cell proliferation and a disturbance in the shuttling balance increases the cell's susceptibility to oncogenic transformation

    The COP1 E3-ligase interacts with FIP200, a key regulator of mammalian autophagy

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin ligase COP1, COnstitutively Photomorphogenic 1, functions in many biological responses in mammalian cells, but its downstream pathway remains unclear. RESULTS: Here, we identified FIP200, a key regulator of mammalian autophagy, as a novel COP1-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction was confirmed by a GST-pulldown assay. Split-GFP analysis revealed that interaction between COP1 and FIP200 predominantly occurred in the cytoplasm and was enhanced in cells treated with UV irradiation. Different forms of FIP200 protein were expressed in cultured mammalian cells, and ectopic expression of COP1 reduced one of such forms. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that COP1 modulates FIP200-associated activities, which may contribute to a variety of cellular functions that COP1 is involved in

    Preclinical evaluation of pentagamavunone-1 as monotherapy and combination therapy for pancreatic cancer in multiple xenograft models

    No full text
    Abstract We previously reported that pentagamavunone-1 (PGV-1) effectively inhibited cell proliferation in many types of human tumors, including pancreatic cancer, by inducing M phase (prometaphase) arrest, senescence, and apoptosis with few side effects. However, a detailed evaluation of the effects of PGV-1 on pancreatic cancer cells in an in vivo setting has not yet been conducted. The present study investigated the potential efficacy of PGV-1 as both monotherapy and combination therapy for pancreatic cancer using multiple xenograft mouse assays. A cell-line derived xenograft model (CDX-M) with pancreatic cancer cell line and a patient-derived xenograft mouse model (PDX-M) using resected pancreatic cancer samples without neoadjuvant chemotherapy were established in both heterotopic and orthotopic manners. PGV-1 effectively suppressed tumor formation at the heterotopic and orthotopic sites in CDX-M than in untreated mice. Combination therapy with PGV-1 and gemcitabine more effectively suppressed tumor formation than monotherapy with PGV-1 or gemcitabine when administered after tumor formation. Monotherapy with PGV-1 or gemcitabine less effectively suppressed tumor formation in PDX-M than in CDX-M, whereas combination therapy with PGV-1 and gemcitabine more effectively suppressed tumor formation. PGV-1 as monotherapy and combination therapy with gemcitabine effectively inhibited tumor formation and has potential as an anticancer candidate for pancreatic cancer

    Isolation and characterization of cytoplasmic cyclin D1 mutants

    Get PDF
    AbstractTo elucidate the mechanism governing the subcellular distribution of cyclin D1 protein, we randomly mutagenized human cyclin D1 cDNA and isolated mutants that encode the protein predominantly located in the cytoplasm. Experiments with Leptomycin B suggested a defect in transportation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus rather than enhanced nuclear exportation. Sequencing revealed that the mutations responsible for the cytoplasmic localization of cyclin D1 resided in the vicinity of the cyclin box, which affected interaction with a catalytic partner, Cdk4. We propose that interaction between cyclin D1 and Cdk4 triggers the mechanism controlling the nuclear transportation of this kinase complex.Structured summaryMINT-7033488:Cdk4 (uniprotkb:P30285) physically interacts (MI:0218) with Cdk1 (uniprotkb:P25322) by anti bait coimmunoprecipitation (MI:0006)MINT-7033511, MINT-7033534:Cdk4 (uniprotkb:P30285) physically interacts (MI:0218) with Cyclin D1 (uniprotkb:P24385) by anti bait coimmunoprecipitation (MI:0006
    corecore