1,583 research outputs found

    Measurement of the electron transmission rate of the gating foil for the TPC of the ILC experiment

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    We have developed a gating foil for the time projection chamber envisaged as a central tracker for the international linear collider experiment. It has a structure similar to the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a higher optical aperture ratio and functions as an ion gate without gas amplification. The transmission rate for electrons was measured in a counting mode for a wide range of the voltages applied across the foil using an 55^{55}Fe source and a laser in the absence of a magnetic field. The blocking power of the foil against positive ions was estimated from the electron transmissions.Comment: 25 pages containing 14 figures and 1 tabl

    Cosmic ray tests of a GEM-based TPC prototype operated in Ar-CF4-isobutane gas mixtures

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    Argon with an admixture of CF4 is expected to be a good candidate for the gas mixture to be used for a time projection chamber (TPC) in the future linear collider experiment because of its small transverse diffusion of drift electrons especially under a strong magnetic field. In order to confirm the superiority of this gas mixture over conventional TPC gases we carried out cosmic ray tests using a GEM-based TPC operated mostly in Ar-CF4-isobutane mixtures under 0 - 1 T axial magnetic fields. The measured gas properties such as gas gain and transverse diffusion constant as well as the observed spatial resolution are presented.Comment: 22 pages, 18 figures. Published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. Fig. 3 in the introduction was corrected since it had not been properly normalized. Minor corrections and no changes in the conclusio

    Resting spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in anabolic androgenic steroid users

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    OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels. METHODS: Fourteen male anabolic androgenic steroid users and 12 nonusers were studied. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were recorded. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated by the sequence method, and cardiac autonomic control by analysis of the R-R interval. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a noninvasive automatic device. RESULTS: Mean spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, baroreflex sensitivity to activation of the baroreceptors, and baroreflex sensitivity to deactivation of the baroreceptors were significantly lower in users than in nonusers. In the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, high frequency activity was lower, while low frequency activity was higher in users than in nonusers. Moreover, the sympathovagal balance was higher in users. Users showed higher pulse wave velocity than nonusers showing arterial stiffness of large vessels. Single linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between mean blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity and pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for lower baroreflex sensitivity and sympathovagal imbalance in anabolic androgenic steroid users. Moreover, anabolic androgenic steroid users showed arterial stiffness. Together, these alterations might be the mechanisms triggering the increased blood pressure in this population

    Convergent evidences from human and animal studies implicate angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity in cognitive performance in schizophrenia

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    In schizophrenia (SCZ), higher angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) levels have been reported in patient's blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Hereby, we propose to explore whether the ACE activity levels are associated to cognitive performance in SCZ. Seventy-two patients with SCZ or schizoaffective disorder diagnosis, and 69 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a cognitive battery with parallel collection of peripheral blood samples to measure ACE activity. Significant higher ACE activity levels were confirmed in the plasma of SCZ patients compared with HCs (Student's t=−5.216; P<0.001). ACE activity significantly correlated to Hopkins delayed recall measures (r=−0.247; P=0.004) and Hopkins total (r=−0.214; P=0.012). Subjects grouped as high ACE activity (above average) had worse performance compared with low ACE activity level group for Hopkins delayed recall measure, even after correction for clinical condition, age, gender and years of education (P=0.029). The adjusted R squared for this final model was 0.343. This result was evident only comparing extreme groups for ACE activity, when splitting the sample in three groups with similar number of subjects. To clarify this finding, we performed an evaluation of the cognitive performance of transgenic mice with three copies of ACE gene in novel object recognition (NOR) test, which showed that such animals presented impairment in NOR (P<0.05) compared with two copies of wild-type animals. The results observed in SCZ patients and animal model suggest both the association of ACE to cognitive deficits in SCZ. This finding may support the evaluation of novel treatment protocols and/or of innovative drugs for specific intervention of cognitive deficits in SCZ envisioning concomitant ACE activity and behavior evaluations

    Kinetic characterization of gyroxin, a serine protease from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

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    This work describes for the first time the characterization of the enzymatic features of gyroxin, a serine protease from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, capable to induce barrel rotation syndrome in rodents. Measuring the hydrolysis of the substrate ZFR-MCA, the optimal pH for proteolytic cleavage of gyroxin was found to be at pH 8.4. Increases in the hydrolytic activity were observed at temperatures from 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C, and increases of NaCl concentration up to 1 M led to activity decreases. the preference of gyroxin for Arg residues at the substrate P1 position was also demonstrated. Taken together, this work describes the characterization of substrate specificity of gyroxin, as well as the effects of salt and pH on its enzymatic activity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Dept Farmacol, BR-04044020 São Paulo, BrazilUniversidade Federal de São Paulo, Dept Biofis, BR-04044020 São Paulo, BrazilInst Ciencias Mar UFC, BR-60165081 Fortaleza, Ceara, BrazilUniv Estado Amazonas, Escola Super Ciencias Saude INCT, BR-69065001 Manaus, Amazonas, BrazilUniversidade Federal de São Paulo, Dept Farmacol, BR-04044020 São Paulo, BrazilUniversidade Federal de São Paulo, Dept Biofis, BR-04044020 São Paulo, BrazilWeb of Scienc

    Operational experience with the GEM detector assembly lines for the CMS forward muon upgrade

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    The CMS Collaboration has been developing large-area triple-gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors to be installed in the muon Endcap regions of the CMS experiment in 2019 to maintain forward muon trigger and tracking performance at the High-Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC); 10 preproduction detectors were built at CERN to commission the first assembly line and the quality controls (QCs). These were installed in the CMS detector in early 2017 and participated in the 2017 LHC run. The collaboration has prepared several additional assembly and QC lines for distributed mass production of 160 GEM detectors at various sites worldwide. In 2017, these additional production sites have optimized construction techniques and QC procedures and validated them against common specifications by constructing additional preproduction detectors. Using the specific experience from one production site as an example, we discuss how the QCs make use of independent hardware and trained personnel to ensure fast and reliable production. Preliminary results on the construction status of CMS GEM detectors are presented with details of the assembly sites involvement
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