1,507 research outputs found

    Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

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    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figure

    Statistically-Anisotropic Tensor Bispectrum from Inflation

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    We develop a possibility of generating tensor non-Gaussianity in a kind of anisotropic inflation, where a U(1)U(1) gauge field is kinetically coupled to a spectator scalar field. Owing to this coupling, the coherent mode of the electric field appears and softly breaks the isotropy of the Universe. We compute the bispectrum of linearly-polarized tensor perturbations sourced by the gauge field and find that it is strongly red-tilted and has distinctive statistical anisotropies including higher-order multipole moments. Interestingly, the tensor bispectra with the specific combinations of linear polarization modes are dominant, and their amplitudes depend on the different sets of multipole moments. This new type of statistically-anisotropic tensor non-Gaussianity can be potentially testable with the upcoming cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization experiments.Comment: 25 pages, 4 figure

    Impending Gastric Rupture in a Neonate with Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Malrotation

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    This is a case report of a neonate with impending gastric rupture due to malrotation with gastric outlet obstruction. A preoperative plain abdominal X-ray showed expansion of the gastric bubble. A barium meal demonstrated an unusual bulging of the gastric wall extending from the fundus to the body of the stomach on the greater curvature side and malrotation of the duodenal loop. At operation a malrotation with volvulus and a rupture of the seromuscular layer with bulging of the mucosa in the stomach was found. We think that this unusual bulging of the gastric wall in the barium meal is an important radiological sign of impending gastric rupture

    Pyogenic Liver Abscess: a Study of 18 Patients

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    Eighteen patients with pyogenic liver abscess were treated at Hiroshima University Hospital, First Department of Surgery and Hiroshima Memorial Hospital between 1979 and August 1984. The most frequent cause of the disease was infection of the biliary tract, accounting for 44%. The most useful diagnostic methods were echography and CT. The use of these, two techniques enabled us to establish diagnosis in almost all the patients. Sufficient drainage of the biliary tract was important in cases of hepatic abscess via the biliary tract. In other causes of hepatic abscess, drainage under echographic guidance was useful in treatment for solitary liver abscess. In cases of multiple liver abscess, it was also considered necessary to puncture the abscess under echographic guidance, to detect the causative organisms, and to use effective antibiotics against that organisms