4 research outputs found

    Mcm2 hypomorph leads to acute leukemia or hematopoietic stem cell failure, dependent on genetic context

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    Minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm2-7) form a hexameric complex that unwinds DNA ahead of a replicative fork. The deficiency of Mcm proteins leads to replicative stress and consequent genomic instability. Mice with a germline insertion of a Cre cassette into the 3'UTR of the Mcm2 gene (designated Mcm2Cre ) have decreased Mcm2 expression and invariably develop precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (pre-T LBL), due to 100-1000‚ÄČkb deletions involving important tumor suppressor genes. To determine whether mice that were protected from pre-T LBL would develop non-T-cell malignancies, we used two approaches. Mice engrafted with Mcm2Cre/Cre Lin- Sca-1+ Kit+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells did not develop hematologic malignancy; however, these mice died of hematopoietic stem cell failure by 6‚ÄČmonths of age. Placing the Mcm2Cre allele onto an athymic nu/nu background completely prevented pre-T LBL and extended survival of these mice three-fold (median 296.5 vs. 80.5‚ÄČdays). Ultimately, most Mcm2Cre/Cre ;nu/nu mice developed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). We identified recurrent deletions of 100-1000‚ÄČkb that involved genes known or suspected to be involved in BCP-ALL, including Pax5, Nf1, Ikzf3, and Bcor. Moreover, whole-exome sequencing identified recurrent mutations of genes known to be involved in BCP-ALL progression, such as Jak1/Jak3, Ptpn11, and Kras. These findings demonstrate that an Mcm2Cre/Cre hypomorph can induce hematopoietic dysfunction via hematopoietic stem cell failure as well as a "deletor" phenotype affecting known or suspected tumor suppressor genes

    Dual Roles of Poly(dA:dT) Tracts in Replication Initiation and Fork Collapse

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    International audienceReplication origins, fragile sites, and rDNA have been implicated as sources of chromosomal instability. However, the defining genomic features of replication origins and fragile sites are among the least understood elements of eukaryote genomes. Here, we map sites of replication initiation and breakage in primary cells at high resolution. We find that replication initiates between transcribed genes within nucleosome-depleted structures established by long asymmetrical poly(dA:dT) tracts flanking the initiation site. Paradoxically, long (\textgreater20 bp) (dA:dT) tracts are also preferential sites of polar replication fork stalling and collapse within early-replicating fragile sites (ERFSs) and late-replicating common fragile sites (CFSs) and at the rDNA replication fork barrier. Poly(dA:dT) sequences are fragile because long single-strand poly(dA) stretches at the replication fork are unprotected by the replication protein A (RPA). We propose that the evolutionary expansion of poly(dA:dT) tracts in eukaryotic genomes promotes replication initiation, but at the cost of chromosome fragility
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