1,452 research outputs found

    The Conditional Effects of Ideology and Institutional Structure on Judicial Voting in State Supreme Courts

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    Two enormously influential perspectives on courts offer fundamentally different predictions about court outcomes and the effects of judge ideology on those outcomes. Well-known to political scientists studying courts, the ideological voting (IV) literature argues that judge ideology is a strong predictor of court outcomes and that those outcomes should be proximate to the policy preferences of courts. Less known to political scientists but highly influential, the law and economics perspective (LE) focuses on settlement behavior of litigants who try to minimize costs and thus estimate likely outcomes in court, and settle simpler cases pre-trial. In this case selection process litigants respond to cues that signal likely outcomes with the result that only complex, less predictable cases make it to trial leading to win-rates that coalesce at fifty percent for plaintiffs or defendants. From this perspective, litigant strategies cancel out the effects of judge ideology and court outcomes do not correspond to judges’ ideological preferences. We reconcile these perspectives by examining tort cases in state supreme courts from 1995 through 1998. The contrasting perspectives stem from the fundamental institutional processes upon which each perspective is based. The LE perspective dominates in states without lower appellate courts (LAC) where process of appeal in these state supreme courts is litigant-driven, with win-rates hovering at fifty percent and deviations from that norm accounted for by forces influencing litigant uncertainty. The ideological voting predicted by the IV literature occurs primarily in the context of state supreme court strategic reversals of LAC decisions---a process commensurate that operating with the U.S. Supreme Court. When it comes to judicial outcomes, institutional structure is a critical element shaping the influence of litigant strategy and judge ideology

    Differential probability for surface and volume electronic excitations in Fe, Pd and Pt

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    The normalized differential mean free path for volume scattering and the differential surface excitation probability for medium energy electrons travelling in Fe, Pd and Pt are extracted from Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectra (REELS). This was achieved by means of a recently introduced procedure in which two REELS spectra taken under different experimental conditions are simultaneously deconvoluted. In this way, it is possible to obtain the unique reconstruction for the surface and volume single scattering loss distribution. The employed method is compared with a procedure that is frequently used for this purpose [Tougaard and Chorkendorff, Phys. Rev. B 35(1987)6570]. It is shown, both theoretically and through analysis of model spectra as well as experimental data that this method does not result in a {\em single} scattering loss distribution. Rather, it gives a mixture of surface, bulk and mixed scattering of any order

    Post-treatment Effects of Erythropoietin and Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid on Recovery from Cisplatin-induced Acute Renal Failure in the Rat

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    5-Lipoxygenase inhibitor and human recombinant erythropoietin might accelerate renal recovery in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: 1) normal controls; 2) Cisplatin group-cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) plus vehicle treatment; 3) Cisplatin+nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor treatment; 4) Cisplatin+erythropoietin (EPO) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus erythropoietin treatment. On day 10 (after 7 daily injections of NDGA or EPO), urea nitrogen and serum Cr concentrations were significantly lower in the Cisplatin+NDGA and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in the Cisplatin group, and 24 hr urine Cr clearances were significantly higher in the Cisplatin+EPO group than in the Cisplatin group. Semi-quantitative assessments of histological lesions did not produce any significant differences between the three treatment groups. Numbers of PCNA(+) cells were significantly higher in Cisplatin, Cisplatin+NDGA, and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in normal controls. Those PCNA(+) cells were significantly increased in Cisplatin+NDGA group. These results suggest that EPO and also NDGA accelerate renal function recovery by stimulating tubular epithelial cell regeneration

    Database: The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation

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    Evolution provides the unifying framework with which to understand biology. The coherent investigation of genic and genomic data often requires comparative genomics analyses based on whole-genome alignments, sets of homologous genes and other relevant datasets in order to evaluate and answer evolutionary-related questions. However, the complexity and computational requirements of producing such data are substantial: this has led to only a small number of reference resources that are used for most comparative analyses. The Ensembl comparative genomics resources are one such reference set that facilitates comprehensive and reproducible analysis of chordate genome data. Ensembl computes pairwise and multiple whole-genome alignments from which large-scale synteny, per-base conservation scores and constrained elements are obtained. Gene alignments are used to define Ensembl Protein Families, GeneTrees and homologies for both protein-coding and non-coding RNA genes. These resources are updated frequently and have a consistent informatics infrastructure and data presentation across all supported species. Specialized web-based visualizations are also available including synteny displays, collapsible gene tree plots, a gene family locator and different alignment views. The Ensembl comparative genomics infrastructure is extensively reused for the analysis of non-vertebrate species by other projects including Ensembl Genomes and Gramene and much of the information here is relevant to these projects. The consistency of the annotation across species and the focus on vertebrates makes Ensembl an ideal system to perform and support vertebrate comparative genomic analyses. We use robust software and pipelines to produce reference comparative data and make it freely available.Database URL: http://www.ensembl.org

    Ensembl 2014

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    Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org) creates tools and data resources to facilitate genomic analysis in chordate species with an emphasis on human, major vertebrate model organisms and farm animals. Over the past year we have increased the number of species that we support to 77 and expanded our genome browser with a new scrollable overview and improved variation and phenotype views. We also report updates to our core datasets and improvements to our gene homology relationships from the addition of new species. Our REST service has been extended with additional support for comparative genomics and ontology information. Finally, we provide updated information about our methods for data access and resources for user training

    Stereochemical Insignificance Discovered in Acinetobacter baumannii Quorum Sensing

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    Stereochemistry is a key aspect of molecular recognition for biological systems. As such, receptors and enzymes are often highly stereospecific, only recognizing one stereoisomer of a ligand. Recently, the quorum sensing signaling molecules used by the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified, and the primary signaling molecule isolated from this species was N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. A plethora of bacterial species have been demonstrated to utilize 3-hydroxy-acylhomoserine lactone autoinducers, and in virtually all cases, the (R)-stereoisomer was identified as the natural ligand and exhibited greater autoinducer activity than the corresponding (S)-stereoisomer. Using chemical synthesis and biochemical assays, we have uncovered a case of stereochemical insignificance in A. baumannii and provide a unique example where stereochemistry appears nonessential for acylhomoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing signaling. Based on previously reported phylogenetic studies, we suggest that A. baumannii has evolutionarily adopted this unique, yet promiscuous quorum sensing system to ensure its survival, particularly in the presence of other proteobacteria
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