139 research outputs found

    Subcellular localization of APMCF1 and its biological significance of expression pattern in normal and malignant human tissues

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>APMCF1 is a novel human gene first cloned from apoptotic MCF-7 cells. Our previous study found ectogenic APMCF1 could induce G1 arrest in hepatocarcinoma cell line HHCC. In order to search its broad expression profile for further understanding of its mechanism in tumor, we investigated a subcellular location of APMCF1 and performed an immunohistochemistry study including various tumor and normal tissues. Discovery from the expression characterization of AMPCF1 may have applicability in the analysis of its biological function in tumor.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We investigated subcellular localization of APMCF1 by transient transfection in green monkey kidney epithelial cells (COS-7) with a fusion protein vector pEGFP-APMCF1 and detected expression profile in a broad range of normal and malignant human tissues via tissue microarray (TMA) by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibody first produced in our laboratory.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>EGFP-APMCF1 was generally localized in the cytoplasm of COS-7 cell. Positive staining of APMCF1 was found in liver, lung, breast, colon, stomach, esophagus and testis, exhibited a ubiquitous expression pattern while its expression was up-regulated in tumor tissues compared with corresponding normal tissues. Normal brain neuron cells also showed expression of APMCF1, but negative in gliocyte cells and glioma. Both the normal and tumor tissues of ovary were absent of APMCF1 expression. Positive immunostaining for APMCF1 with large samples in liver, colon, esophagus, lung and breast carcinomas were 96% (51/53), 80% (44/55), 57% (30/53), 58% (33/57) and 34% (16/47) respectively.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These results revealed a cytoplastic expression pattern of APMCF1 and up-regulated in tumour tissues suggesting APMCF1 may have potential relationship with oncogenesis. The data presented should serve as a useful reference for further studies of APMCF1 functions in tumorigenesis and might provide a potential anti-tumor target.</p

    In vivo99mTc-HYNIC-annexin V imaging of early tumor apoptosis in mice after single dose irradiation

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Apoptosis is a major mode of hematological tumor death after radiation. Early detection of apoptosis may be beneficial for cancer adaptive treatment. <sup>99m</sup>Tc-HYNIC-annexinV has been reported as a promising agent for in vivo apoptosis imaging. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo<sup>99m</sup>Tc-HYNIC-annexinV imaging of radiation- induced apoptosis, and to investigate its correlation with radiosensitivity.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Ten days after inoculation of tumor cells in the right upper limbs, the mice were randomly divided into two groups. The imaging group (4 mice each level, 4 dose levels) was injected with 4-8 MBq <sup>99m</sup>Tc-HYNIC-annexinV 24 hours after irradiation and imaged 1 hr post-injection, and the mice were sacrificed immediately after imaging for biodistribution analysis of annexin V. The observation group (4 mice each level, 2 dose levels) was only observed for tumor regression post-radiation. The number of apoptotic cells in a tumor was estimated with TUNEL assay.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The <sup>99m</sup>Tc-HYNIC-annexin V uptake in E14 lymphoma significantly increased as the radiation dose escalated from 0 to 8 Gy, and significantly correlated with the number of TUNEL-positive cells (r = 0.892, P < 0.001). The Annexin-V uptake and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in El4 lymphoma were significantly greater than those in S180 sarcoma. With 8 Gy, S180 sarcoma tumor showed scanty apoptosis and less shrinkage while El4 lymphoma showed remarkable apoptosis and complete remission.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p><sup>99</sup>mTc-HYNIC-annexinV in vivo imaging is a feasible method to detect early radiation-induced apoptosis in different tumors, and might be predictive for radiation sensitivity.</p

    Privacy-Preserving Cross-Facility Early Warning for Unknown Epidemics

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    Syndrome-based early epidemic warning plays a vital role in preventing and controlling unknown epidemic outbreaks. It monitors the frequency of each syndrome, issues a warning if some frequency is aberrant, identifies potential epidemic outbreaks, and alerts governments as early as possible. Existing systems adopt a cloud-assisted paradigm to achieve cross-facility statistics on the syndrome frequencies. However, in these systems, all symptom data would be directly leaked to the cloud, which causes critical security and privacy issues. In this paper, we first analyze syndrome-based early epidemic warning systems and formalize two security notions, i.e., symptom confidentiality and frequency confidentiality, according to the inherent security requirements. We propose EpiOracle, a cross-facility early warning scheme for unknown epidemics. EpiOracle ensures that the contents and frequencies of syndromes will not be leaked to any unrelated parties; moreover, our construction uses only a symmetric-key encryption algorithm and cryptographic hash functions (e.g., [CBC]AES and SHA-3), making it highly efficient. We formally prove the security of EpiOracle in the random oracle model. We also implement an EpiOracle prototype and evaluate its performance using a set of real-world symptom lists. The evaluation results demonstrate its practical efficiency

    A Glimpse of Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome from Comparative Genomics of S. suis 2 Chinese Isolates

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    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important zoonotic pathogen, causing more than 200 cases of severe human infection worldwide, with the hallmarks of meningitis, septicemia, arthritis, etc. Very recently, SS2 has been recognized as an etiological agent for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), which was originally associated with Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) in Streptococci. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying STSS are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To elucidate the genetic determinants of STSS caused by SS2, whole genome sequencing of 3 different Chinese SS2 strains was undertaken. Comparative genomics accompanied by several lines of experiments, including experimental animal infection, PCR assay, and expression analysis, were utilized to further dissect a candidate pathogenicity island (PAI). Here we show, for the first time, a novel molecular insight into Chinese isolates of highly invasive SS2, which caused two large-scale human STSS outbreaks in China. A candidate PAI of ∼89 kb in length, which is designated 89K and specific for Chinese SS2 virulent isolates, was investigated at the genomic level. It shares the universal properties of PAIs such as distinct GC content, consistent with its pivotal role in STSS and high virulence. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first PAI candidate from S. suis worldwide. Our finding thus sheds light on STSS triggered by SS2 at the genomic level, facilitates further understanding of its pathogenesis and points to directions of development on some effective strategies to combat highly pathogenic SS2 infections

    SalK/SalR, a Two-Component Signal Transduction System, Is Essential for Full Virulence of Highly Invasive Streptococcus suis Serotype 2

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    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2, SS2) has evolved into a highly infectious entity, which caused the two recent large-scale outbreaks of human SS2 epidemic in China, and is characterized by a toxic shock-like syndrome. However, the molecular pathogenesis of this new emerging pathogen is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 89K is a newly predicted pathogenicity island (PAI) which is specific to Chinese epidemic strains isolated from these two SS2 outbreaks. Further bioinformatics analysis revealed a unique two-component signal transduction system (TCSTS) located in the candidate 89K PAI, which is orthologous to the SalK/SalR regulatory system of Streptococcus salivarius. Knockout of salKR eliminated the lethality of SS2 in experimental infection of piglets. Functional complementation of salKR into the isogenic mutant DeltasalKR restored its soaring pathogenicity. Colonization experiments showed that the DeltasalKR mutant could not colonize any susceptible tissue of piglets when administered alone. Bactericidal assays demonstrated that resistance of the mutant to polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-mediated killing was greatly decreased. Expression microarray analysis exhibited a transcription profile alteration of 26 various genes down-regulated in the DeltasalKR mutant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that SalK/SalR is requisite for the full virulence of ethnic Chinese isolates of highly pathogenic SS2, thus providing experimental evidence for the validity of this bioinformatically predicted PAI

    Mechanism of Cooperative Agglomeration of Marine Industry and Spatial Spillover Effect

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