9,367 research outputs found

    Limitation of the Press-Schechter Formalism

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    The Press-Schechter(PS) formalism for the mass function of the collapsed objects are reanalyzed. The factor of two in the Press-Schechter formalism is argued to be correct in the sharp kk-space filter even when we use the another approach proposed by Jedamzik(1994) in the cloud-in-cloud problem, which is different from the previous approach by Peacock & Heavens(1990) and Bond et al.(1991). The spatial correlation of the density fluctuations, however, had been neglected in the cloud-in-cloud problem. The effects of this spatial correlation is analyzed by using the Jedamzik formalism and it is found that this effect alter the PS mass function especially on larger mass scales. Furthermore the exact formula of deriving mass function is shown. We also find that the probability of the overlap of the collapsed objects can be neglected on very small mass scales while it might not be neglected on other mass scales.Comment: 23 pages, uuencoded compressed Postscrip

    On h h -transforms of one-dimensional diffusions stopped upon hitting zero

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    For a one-dimensional diffusion on an interval for which 0 is the regular-reflecting left boundary, three kinds of conditionings to avoid zero are studied. The limit processes are h h -transforms of the process stopped upon hitting zero, where h h 's are the ground state, the scale function, and the renormalized zero-resolvent. Several properties of the h h -transforms are investigated

    A space-time variational approach to hydrodynamic stability theory

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    We present a hydrodynamic stability theory for incompressible viscous fluid flows based on a space–time variational formulation and associated generalized singular value decomposition of the (linearized) Navier–Stokes equations. We first introduce a linear framework applicable to a wide variety of stationary- or time-dependent base flows: we consider arbitrary disturbances in both the initial condition and the dynamics measured in a ‘data’ space–time norm; the theory provides a rigorous, sharp (realizable) and efficiently computed bound for the velocity perturbation measured in a ‘solution’ space–time norm. We next present a generalization of the linear framework in which the disturbances and perturbation are now measured in respective selected space–time semi-norms; the semi-norm theory permits rigorous and sharp quantification of, for example, the growth of initial disturbances or functional outputs. We then develop a (Brezzi–Rappaz–Raviart) nonlinear theory which provides, for disturbances which satisfy a certain (rather stringent) amplitude condition, rigorous finite-amplitude bounds for the velocity and output perturbations. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our linear and nonlinear hydrodynamic stability theory to unsteady moderate Reynolds number flow in an eddy-promoter channel.United States. Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (Grant FA9550-09-1-0613)United States. Office of Naval Research (Grant N00014-11-1-0713