832 research outputs found

    Measurement of dsigma/dy for high mass Drell-Yan e+e- Pairs at CDF

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    We report on the first measurement of the rapidity distribution dsigma/dy over nearly the entire kinematic region of rapidity for e+e- pairs in the Z-boson region of 66116 GeV/c2. The data sample consists of 108 pb-1 of pbar-p collisions at sqrt{s}=1.8 TeV taken by the Collider Detector at Fermilab during 1992--1995. The total cross section in the Z-boson region is measured to be 252 +- 11 pb. The measured total cross section and dsigma/dy are compared with quantum chromodynamics calculations in leading and higher orders.Comment: 3 pages, Presented by Arie Bodek for the CDF Collaboration at DPF-2000, Columbus, Ohio, August 200

    Modeling Deep Inelastic Cross Sections in the Few GeV Region

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    We present preliminary results on simple modifications and corrections to GRV94 leading order parton distribution functions such that they can be used to model electron,muon and neutrino deep-inelastic scattering cross sections at low energies.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figures. Presented by Arie Bodek at NuInt01, the First International Workshop on Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions in the Few GeV Region, Dec. 2001, KEK, Tsukuba, Japan. To be published in Nucl. Physics B. Proceedings Supplement, Fall 200

    Analytic Estimates of the QCD Corrections to Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

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    We study the QCD corrections to neutrino deep-inelastic scattering on a nucleus, and analytically estimate their size. For an isoscalar target, we show that the dominant QCD corrections to the ratio of the neutral- to charged-current events are suppressed by sin^4 theta_W, where theta_W is the weak mixing angle. We then discuss the implications for the NuTeV determination of sin^2 theta_W.Comment: 16 pages, Late

    Evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking from hyperon production

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    We examine the SU(3) symmetry breaking in hyperon semileptonic decays (HSD) by considering two typical sets of quark contributions to the spin content of the octet baryons: Set-1 with SU(3) flavor symmetry and Set-2 with SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking in HSD. The quark distributions of the octet baryons are calculated with a successful statistical model. Using an approximate relation between the quark fragmentation functions and the quark distributions, we predict polarizations of the octet baryons produced in e+ee^+e^- annihilation and semi-inclusive deeply lepton-nucleon scattering in order to reveal the SU(3) symmetry breaking effect on the spin structure of the octet baryons. We find that the SU(3) symmetry breaking significantly affects the hyperon polarization. The available experimental data on the Λ\Lambda polarization seem to favor the theoretical predictions with SU(3) symmetry breaking. We conclude that there is a possibility to get a collateral evidence for SU(3) symmetry breaking from hyperon production. The theoretical errors for our predictions are discussed.Comment: 3 tables, 14 figure

    On the value of αs\alpha_s from the analysis of the SLAC/BCDMS deep inelastic scattering data

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    We performed NLO QCD analysis of the nonsinglet part of the combined SLAC/BCDMS data on F2F_2 with the extraction of αs\alpha_s and high twist contribution. It was shown that the value of αs\alpha_s obtained in the analysis is sensitive to the statistical inference procedures dealing with systematic errors on the data. The fit with the complete account of point-to-point correlations of the data gave the value of αs(MZ)=0.1180±0.0017(68\alpha_s(M_Z)=0.1180\pm0.0017 (68% C.L.), to be compared with the previously reported value of αs(MZ)=0.113±0.003(99\alpha_s(M_Z)=0.113\pm0.003 (99% C.L.). This new value of αs\alpha_s is compatible with the LEP measurements and the world average. The high twist contribution being strongly anti-correlated with the value of αs\alpha_s became lower than it was previously reported.Comment: 9 pages, LATEX, 2 figures (PS), report-no added, English improved, misprints corrected, minor changes of the tex

    Leading and higher twists in the proton polarized structure function at large Bjorken x

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    A phenomenological parameterization of the proton polarized structure function has been developed for x > 0.02 using deep inelastic data up to ~ 50 (GeV/c)**2 as well as available experimental results on both photo- and electro-production of proton resonances. According to the new parameterization the generalized Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule is predicted to have a zero-crossing point at Q**2 = 0.16 +/- 0.04 (GeV/c)**2. Then, low-order polarized Nachtmann moments have been estimated and their Q**2-behavior has been investigated in terms of leading and higher twists for Q**2 > 1 (GeV/c)**2. The leading twist has been treated at NLO in the strong coupling constant and the effects of higher orders of the perturbative series have been estimated using soft-gluon resummation techniques. In case of the first moment higher-twist effects are found to be quite small for Q**2 > 1 (GeV/c)**2, and the singlet axial charge has been determined to be a0[10 (GeV/c)**2] = 0.16 +/- 0.09. In case of higher order moments, which are sensitive to the large-x region, higher-twist effects are significantly reduced by the introduction of soft gluon contributions, but they are still relevant at Q**2 ~ few (GeV/c)**2 at variance with the case of the unpolarized transverse structure function of the proton. Our finding suggests that spin-dependent correlations among partons may have more impact than spin-independent ones. As a byproduct, it is also shown that the Bloom-Gilman local duality is strongly violated in the region of polarized electroproduction of the Delta(1232) resonance.Comment: revised version to appear in Phys. Rev. D; extended discussion on the generalized DHG sum rul

    Pre-M Phase-promoting Factor Associates with Annulate Lamellae in Xenopus Oocytes and Egg Extracts

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    We have used complementary biochemical and in vivo approaches to study the compartmentalization of M phase-promoting factor (MPF) in prophase Xenopus eggs and oocytes. We first examined the distribution of MPF (Cdc2/CyclinB2) and membranous organelles in high-speed extracts of Xenopus eggs made during mitotic prophase. These extracts were found to lack mitochondria, Golgi membranes, and most endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but to contain the bulk of the pre-MPF pool. This pre-MPF could be pelleted by further centrifugation along with components necessary to activate it. On activation, Cdc2/CyclinB2 moved into the soluble fraction. Electron microscopy and Western blot analysis showed that the pre-MPF pellet contained a specific ER subdomain comprising "annulate lamellae" (AL): stacked ER membranes highly enriched in nuclear pores. Colocalization of pre-MPF with AL was demonstrated by anti-CyclinB2 immunofluorescence in prophase oocytes, in which AL are positioned close to the vegetal surface. Green fluorescent protein-CyclinB2 expressed in oocytes also localized at AL. These data suggest that inactive MPF associates with nuclear envelope components just before activation. This association may explain why nuclei and centrosomes stimulate MPF activation and provide a mechanism for targeting of MPF to some of its key substrates

    Neutron structure function and inclusive DIS from H-3 and He-3 at large Bjorken-x

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    A detailed study of inclusive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) from mirror A = 3 nuclei at large values of the Bjorken variable x is presented. The main purpose is to estimate the theoretical uncertainties on the extraction of the neutron DIS structure function from such nuclear measurements. On one hand, within models in which no modification of the bound nucleon structure functions is taken into account, we have investigated the possible uncertainties arising from: i) charge symmetry breaking terms in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, ii) finite Q**2 effects neglected in the Bjorken limit, iii) the role of different prescriptions for the nucleon Spectral Function normalization providing baryon number conservation, and iv) the differences between the virtual nucleon and light cone formalisms. Although these effects have been not yet considered in existing analyses, our conclusion is that all these effects cancel at the level of ~ 1% for x < 0.75 in overall agreement with previous findings. On the other hand we have considered several models in which the modification of the bound nucleon structure functions is accounted for to describe the EMC effect in DIS scattering from nuclei. It turns out that within these models the cancellation of nuclear effects is expected to occur only at a level of ~ 3%, leading to an accuracy of ~ 12 % in the extraction of the neutron to proton structure function ratio at x ~ 0.7 -0.8$. Another consequence of considering a broad range of models of the EMC effect is that the previously suggested iteration procedure does not improve the accuracy of the extraction of the neutron to proton structure function ratio.Comment: revised version to appear in Phys. Rev. C; main modifications in Section 4; no change in the conclusion

    Association Between Insulin Resistance and Development of Microalbuminuria in Type 2 Diabetes: A prospective cohort study

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    [[abstract]]OBJECTIVE An association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes has often been found in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to reassess this relationship in a prospective Taiwanese cohort of type 2 diabetic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We enrolled 738 normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic subjects, aged 56.6 +/- 9.0 years, between 2003 and 2005 and followed them through the end of 2009. Average follow-up time was 5.2 +/- 0.8 years. We used urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio to define microalbuminuria and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) to assess insulin resistance. The incidence rate ratio and Cox proportional hazard model were used to evaluate the association between HOMA-IR and development of microalbuminuria. RESULTS We found incidences of microalbuminuria of 64.8, 83.5, 93.3, and 99.0 per 1,000 person-years for the lowest to highest quartiles of HOMA-IR. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of HOMA-IR, the incidence rate ratio for those in the 2nd, 3rd, and highest quartiles were 1.28 (95% CI 0.88-1.87), 1.44 (0.99-2.08), and 1.52 (1.06-2.20), respectively (trend test: P < 0.001). By comparison with those in the lowest quartile, the adjusted hazard ratios were 1.37 (0.93-2.02), 1.66 (1.12-2.47), and 1.76 (1.20-2.59) for those in the 2nd, 3rd, and highest HOMA-IR quartiles, respectively. CONCLUSIONS According to the dose-response effects of HOMA-IR shown in this prospective study, we conclude that insulin resistance could significantly predict development of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients
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