176,578 research outputs found

    Computer-aided Circuit Analysis Semiannual Report, May 15 - Nov. 14, 1966

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    Digital computer aided circuit analysis and desig

    Computer-aided circuit analysis Annual report, May 15, 1965 - May 14, 1966

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    Research on digital computer aided analysis of electric circuit

    Mechanism conversion process and timeliness of N2-ECBM

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    Purpose. Based on the technology by which methane drainage is strengthened under gas injection, to examine the process of gas injection and the mechanism of action. Methods. Physical simulation experiment method, using the self-built coal seam and gas injection displacement experimental device, the experiment of layered pre-compression forming coal samples under vertical stress loading conditions and under the conditions of different gas injection pressures. Findings. The experiment on N2-ECBM is a dynamic process and has time effects. In the overall process, the rate of replacement was more than 60%, and the rate of displacement was less than 40%. Originality. According to the behavior of nitrogen injection in the coalbed, an assessment of displacement effects under gas injection and a quantitative evaluation of the replacement effect were presented. In every stage of the process, the replacement effect is dominant, while the role of displacement is of secondary importance. Practical implications. The experimental results have great guiding significance for optimization of gas parameters and gas source selection for gas injection flooding in underground coal seams.Мета. Вивчити процес вприскування газу у вугільний пласт й механізм його впливу на основі технології, яка дозволяє забезпечити дренаж метану, інтенсифікований за рахунок нагнітання газу. Методика. Використано експериментальний метод фізичного моделювання: була змонтована установка з моделлю вугленосного пласта для дослідження вприскування газу з метою витіснення метану. В експерименті попередньо стиснені зразки шаруватого вугілля піддавалися вертикальному навантаженню при тисках 200 кН, аналогічних тиску вприснутого газу. Газ для ін’єкцій вимірювався контролером масової витрати з максимальною швидкістю 5 л/хв, і через монітор контролювалися миттєвий і загальний потоки. В експерименті використано антрацит вугільної шахти Хуатай. Результати. Експериментальними дослідженнями встановлено, що концентрація і об’єм метану призводять до змін тиску, витрати і часу вприскування азоту, що свідчить про те, що процес заміщення метану вугільного пласта шляхом закачування азоту залежить від часу. Доведено, що експеримент з використанням технології N2-ECBM (інтенсивного вилучення вугільного метану) – це динамічний процес, в якому фактор часу відіграє вирішальну роль. Об’єм азоту, який залишається у вугіллі й витісняє метан, можна розглядати як кількісний вклад ефекту зміщення. Виявлено, що в результаті використання даної технології, рівень заміщення метану зріс більш, ніж на 60%; а рівень його витіснення – на 40%. Наукова новизна. Вивчено ефект витіснення метану при нагнітанні азоту у вугільний пласт з урахуванням поведінки газу у вугленосній товщі, а також дана кількісна оцінка ефекту заміщення, що чинить ключовий вплив на всіх стадіях процесу, в той час як роль витіснення – другорядна. Практична значимість. Результати експериментів мають принципове значення для оптимізації параметрів газу та для вибору джерела вприскування газу у вугільні пласти.Цель. Изучить процесс впрыскивания газа в угольный пласт и механизм его воздействия на основе технологии, которая позволяет обеспечить дренаж метана, интенсифицированный за счет нагнетания газа. Методика. Использован экспериментальный метод физического моделирования: была смонтирована установка с моделью угленосного пласта для исследования впрыскивания газа с целью вытеснения метана. В эксперименте предварительно сжатые образцы слоистого угля подвергались вертикальной нагрузке при давлениях 200 кН, аналогичных давлению впрыскиваемого газа. Газ для инъекций измерялся контроллером массового расхода с максимальной скоростью 5 л/мин, и через монитор контролировались мгновенный и общий потоки. В эксперименте использован антрацит угольной шахты Хуатай. Результаты. Экспериментальными исследованиями установлено, что концентрация и объем метана приводят к изменениям давления, расхода и времени впрыска азота, что свидетельствует о том, что процесс замещения метана угольного пласта путем закачки азота зависит от времени. Доказано, что эксперимент с использованием технологии N2-ECBM (интенсивного извлечения угольного метана) – это динамический процесс, в котором фактор времени играет решающую роль. Объем азота, который остается в угле и вытесняет метан, можно рассматривать как количественный вклад эффекта смещения. Выявлено, что в результате использования данной технологии, уровень замещения метана возрос более, чем на 60%; а уровень его вытеснения – на 40%. Научная новизна. Изучен эффект вытеснения метана при нагнетании азота в угольный пласт с точки зрения поведения газа в угленосной толще, а также дана количественная оценка эффекту замещения, оказывающему ключевое влияние на всех стадиях процесса, в то время как роль вытеснения – вторична. Практическая значимость. Результаты экспериментов имеют принципиальное значение для оптимизации параметров газа и для выбора источника впрыскивания газа в угольные пласты.The authors are grateful for the financial support from the Natural Science Foundation for the Youth of China (No. 51404091) and the PhD Foundation of Henan Polytechnic University (B2015-08)

    New high fill-factor triangular micro-lens array fabrication method using UV proximity printing

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    A simple and effective method to fabricate a high fill-factor triangular microlens array using the proximity printing in lithography process is reported. The technology utilizes the UV proximity printing by controlling a printing gap between the mask and substrate. The designed approximate triangle microlens array pattern can be fabricated the high fill-factor triangular microlens array in photoresist. It is due to the UV light diffraction to deflect away from the aperture edges and produce a certain exposure in photoresist material outside the aperture edges. This method can precisely control the geometric profile of high fill factor triangular microlens array. The experimental results showed that the triangular micro-lens array in photoresist could be formed automatically when the printing gap ranged from 240 micrometers to 840 micrometers. The gapless triangular microlens array will be used to increases of luminance for backlight module of liquid crystal displays.Comment: Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/16838

    Quantum Loop Subalgebra and Eigenvectors of the Superintegrable Chiral Potts Transfer Matrices

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    It has been shown in earlier works that for Q=0 and L a multiple of N, the ground state sector eigenspace of the superintegrable tau_2(t_q) model is highly degenerate and is generated by a quantum loop algebra L(sl_2). Furthermore, this loop algebra can be decomposed into r=(N-1)L/N simple sl_2 algebras. For Q not equal 0, we shall show here that the corresponding eigenspace of tau_2(t_q) is still highly degenerate, but splits into two spaces, each containing 2^{r-1} independent eigenvectors. The generators for the sl_2 subalgebras, and also for the quantum loop subalgebra, are given generalizing those in the Q=0 case. However, the Serre relations for the generators of the loop subalgebra are only proven for some states, tested on small systems and conjectured otherwise. Assuming their validity we construct the eigenvectors of the Q not equal 0 ground state sectors for the transfer matrix of the superintegrable chiral Potts model.Comment: LaTeX 2E document, using iopart.cls with iopams packages. 28 pages, uses eufb10 and eurm10 fonts. Typeset twice! Version 2: Details added, improvements and minor corrections made, erratum to paper 2 included. Version 3: Small paragraph added in introductio

    Metric and topo-geometric properties of urban street networks: some convergences, divergences, and new results

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    The theory of cities, which has grown out of the use of space syntax techniques in urban studies, proposes a curious mathematical duality: that urban space is locally metric but globally topo-geometric. Evidence for local metricity comes from such generic phenomena as grid intensification to reduce mean trip lengths in live centres, the fall of movement from attractors with metric distance, and the commonly observed decay of shopping with metric distance from an intersection. Evidence for global topo-geometry come from the fact that we need to utilise both the geometry and connectedness of the larger scale space network to arrive at configurational measures which optimally approximate movement patterns in the urban network. It might be conjectured that there is some threshold above which human being use some geometrical and topological representation of the urban grid rather than the sense of bodily distance to making movement decisions, but this is unknown. The discarding of metric properties in the large scale urban grid has, however, been controversial. Here we cast a new light on this duality. We show first some phenomena in which metric and topo-geometric measures of urban space converge and diverge, and in doing so clarify the relation between the metric and topo-geometric properties of urban spatial networks. We then show how metric measures can be used to create a new urban phenomenon: the partitioning of the background network of urban space into a network of semi-discrete patches by applying metric universal distance measures at different metric radii, suggesting a natural spatial area-isation of the city at all scales. On this basis we suggest a key clarification of the generic structure of cities: that metric universal distance captures exactly the formally and functionally local patchwork properties of the network, most notably the spatial differentiation of areas, while the top-geometric measures identifying the structure which overcomes locality and links the urban patchwork into a whole at different scales

    A new time scale based k-epsilon model for near wall turbulence

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    A k-epsilon model is proposed for wall bonded turbulent flows. In this model, the eddy viscosity is characterized by a turbulent velocity scale and a turbulent time scale. The time scale is bounded from below by the Kolmogorov time scale. The dissipation equation is reformulated using this time scale and no singularity exists at the wall. The damping function used in the eddy viscosity is chosen to be a function of R(sub y) = (k(sup 1/2)y)/v instead of y(+). Hence, the model could be used for flows with separation. The model constants used are the same as in the high Reynolds number standard k-epsilon model. Thus, the proposed model will be also suitable for flows far from the wall. Turbulent channel flows at different Reynolds numbers and turbulent boundary layer flows with and without pressure gradient are calculated. Results show that the model predictions are in good agreement with direct numerical simulation and experimental data

    A kappa-epsilon calculation of transitional boundary layers

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    A recently proposed kappa-epsilon model for low Reynolds number turbulent flows was modified by introducing a new damping function f(sub mu). The modified model is used to calculate the transitional boundary layer over a flat plate with different freestream turbulence levels. It is found that the model could mimic the transitional flow. However, the predicted transition is found to be sensitive to the initial conditions

    Metric and topo-geometric properties of urban street networks: some convergences, divergences and new results

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    The theory of cities, which has grown out of the use of space syntax techniques in urban studies, proposes a curious mathematical duality: that urban space is locally metric but globally topo-geometric. Evidence for local metricity comes from such generic phenomena as grid intensification to reduce mean trip lengths in live centres, the fall of movement from attractors with metric distance, and the commonly observed decay of shopping with metric distance from an intersection. Evidence for global topo-geometry come from the fact that we need to utilise both the geometry and connectedness of the larger scale space network to arrive at configurational measures which optimally approximate movement patterns in the urban network. It might be conjectured that there is some threshold above which human being use some geometrical and topological representation of the urban grid rather than the sense of bodily distance to making movement decisions, but this is unknown. The discarding of metric properties in the large scale urban grid has, however, been controversial. Here we cast a new light on this duality. We show first some phenomena in which metric and topo-geometric measures of urban space converge and diverge, and in doing so clarify the relation between the metric and topo-geometric properties of urban spatial networks. We then show how metric measures can be used to create a new urban phenomenon: the partitioning of the background network of urban space into a network of semi-discrete patches by applying metric universal distance measures at different metric radii, suggesting a natural spatial area-isation of the city at all scales. On this basis we suggest a key clarification of the generic structure of cities: that metric universal distance captures exactly the formally and functionally local patchwork properties of the network, most notably the spatial differentiation of areas, while the top-geometric measures identifying the structure which overcomes locality and links the urban patchwork into a whole at different scales

    A k-epsilon modeling of near wall turbulence

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    A k-epsilon model is proposed for turbulent bounded flows. In this model, the turbulent velocity scale and turbulent time scale are used to define the eddy viscosity. The time scale is shown to be bounded from below by the Kolmogorov time scale. The dissipation equation is reformulated using the time scale, removing the need to introduce the pseudo-dissipation. A damping function is chosen such that the shear stress satisfies the near wall asymptotic behavior. The model constants used are the same as the model constants in the commonly used high turbulent Reynolds number k-epsilon model. Fully developed turbulent channel flows and turbulent boundary layer flows over a flat plate at various Reynolds numbers are used to validate the model. The model predictions were found to be in good agreement with the direct numerical simulation data
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