108,176 research outputs found

    Cylindrical Superlens by a Coordinate Transformation

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    Cylinder-shaped perfect lens deduced from the coordinate transformation method is proposed. The previously reported perfect slab lens is noticed to be a limiting form of the cylindrical lens when the inner radius approaches infinity with respect to the lens thickness. Connaturality between a cylindrical lens and a slab lens is affirmed by comparing their eigenfield transfer functions. We numerically confirm the subwavelength focusing capability of such a cylindrical lens with consideration of material imperfection. Compared to a slab lens, a cylindrical lens has several advantages, including finiteness in cross-section, and ability in lensing with magnification or demagnification. Immediate applications of such a cylindrical lens can be in high-resolution imaging and lithography technologies. In addition, its invisibility property suggests that it may be valuable for non-invasive electromagnetic probing.Comment: Minor changes to conform with the published versio

    Growth mechanism of nanostructured superparamagnetic rods obtained by electrostatic co-assembly

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    We report on the growth of nanostructured rods fabricated by electrostatic co-assembly between iron oxide nanoparticles and polymers. The nanoparticles put under scrutiny, {\gamma}-Fe2O3 or maghemite, have diameter of 6.7 nm and 8.3 nm and narrow polydispersity. The co-assembly is driven by i) the electrostatic interactions between the polymers and the particles, and by ii) the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. The rods are characterized by large anisotropy factors, with diameter 200 nm and length comprised between 1 and 100 {\mu}m. In the present work, we provide for the first time the morphology diagram for the rods as a function of ionic strength and concentration. We show the existence of a critical nanoparticle concentration and of a critical ionic strength beyond which the rods do not form. In the intermediate regimes, only tortuous and branched aggregates are detected. At higher concentrations and lower ionic strengths, linear and stiff rods with superparamagnetic properties are produced. Based on these data, a mechanism for the rod formation is proposed. The mechanism proceeds in two steps : the formation and growth of spherical clusters of particles, and the alignment of the clusters induced by the magnetic dipolar interactions. As far as the kinetics of these processes is concerned, the clusters growth and their alignment occur concomitantly, leading to a continuous accretion of particles or small clusters, and a welding of the rodlike structure.Comment: 15 pages, 10 figures, one tabl

    Mathematical modelling and experimental validation of electrostatic sensors for rotational speed measurement

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    Recent research has demonstrated that electrostatic sensors can be applied to the measurement of rotational speed with excellent repeatability and accuracy under a range of conditions. However, the sensing mechanism and fundamental characteristics of the electrostatic sensors are still largely unknown and hence the design of the sensors is not optimised for rotational speed measurement. This paper presents the mathematical modelling of strip electrostatic sensors for rotational speed measurement and associated experimental studies for the validation of the modelling results. In the modelling, an ideal point charge on the surface of the rotating object is regarded as an impulse input to the sensing system. The fundamental characteristics of the sensor, including spatial sensitivity, spatial filtering length and signal bandwidth, are quantified from the developed model. The effects of the geometric dimensions of the electrode, the distance between the electrode and the rotor surface and the rotational speed being measured on the performance of the sensor are analyzed. A close agreement between the modelling results and experimental measurements has been observed under a range of conditions. Optimal design of the electrostatic sensor for a given rotor size is suggested and discussed in accordance with the modelling and experimental results


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    In the paper, an econometric model is proposed to test the risk balancing hypothesis using farm level data. For the purpose, a constraint on expected utility maximization with respect to farm financial structure is given. Cluster method is applied to pick out the farms on the efficient frontier under expected utility maximization given risk attitude and actual interest rate. Regression results are given and compared to previous findings. Farm characteristics associated with the risk behaviors of farms with optimal utility are identified and compared with other farms.Risk and Uncertainty,
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