450 research outputs found

    Poly[bis­[μ-1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxido-7-(1-piperazin­yl)-1,4-dihydro­quinoline-3-carboxyl­ato]nickel(II)]

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    In the title compound, [Ni(C17H17FN3O3)2]n, the NiII atom exists in a distorted trans-NiN2O4 octa­hedral geometry defined by two monodentate N-bonded and two bidentate O,O-bonded 1-cyclo­propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxido-7-(1-piperazin­yl)-1,4-dihydro­quinoline-3-carboxyl­ate (ciprofloxacinium) monoanions. The extended two-dimensional structure is a square grid. The Ni atom lies on a center of inversion

    Role of NLRP3 in the pathogenesis and treatment of gout arthritis

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    Gout arthritis (GA) is a common and curable type of inflammatory arthritis that has been attributed to a combination of genetic, environmental and metabolic factors. Chronic deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in articular and periarticular spaces as well as subsequent activation of innate immune system in the condition of persistent hyperuricemia are the core mechanisms of GA. As is well known, drugs for GA therapy primarily consists of rapidly acting anti-inflammatory agents and life-long uric acid lowering agents, and their therapeutic outcomes are far from satisfactory. Although MSU crystals in articular cartilage detected by arthrosonography or in synovial fluid found by polarization microscopy are conclusive proofs for GA, the exact molecular mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the course of GA still remains mysterious, severely restricting the early diagnosis and therapy of GA. On the one hand, the activation of Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome requires nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent transcriptional enhancement of NLRP3, precursor (pro)-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1β, as well as the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome complex and sustained release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1. On the other hand, NLRP3 inflammasome activated by MSU crystals is particularly relevant to the initiation and progression of GA, and thus may represent a prospective diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target. As a result, pharmacological inhibition of the assembly and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome may also be a promising avenue for GA therapy. Herein, we first introduced the functional role of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and relevant biological mechanisms in GA based on currently available evidence. Then, we systematically reviewed therapeutic strategies for targeting NLRP3 by potentially effective agents such as natural products, novel compounds and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the treatment of MSU-induced GA mouse models. In conclusion, our present review may have significant implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of GA

    Light Harvesting Mechanism of Photosystem II in Photosynthesis:

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    As one of the most important chemical reactions on the earth, the photosynthetic reaction has gained much attention. For example, foliage and algae possess superior abilities to harvest luminous energy from sunlight in photosynthetic reactions by capturing lights with the light-harvesting complex (LHC) and transferring the energy from LHC to the reaction center (RC) in Photosystem II (PSII), to realize the continuous and efficient transformation from luminous energy to chemistry energy. In this article, the progresses in the studies on the crystal structure of PSII, the energy and electron transfer mechanism, and artificial simulation on photo-induced electron transfer are reviewed. Additionally, the initiating mechanism of hydrogen-abstraction photoinitiators, and the inspiration of the principles and mechanisms of photo-induced electron transfer in macromolecular photoinitiators were also discussed. It is believed that properly choosing covalent chains of appropriate types and length as the bridge between electron donor and electron acceptor is crucial for improving the initiating efficiency of photoinitiators. Keywords: photosynthesis; photosystem; light harvesting; photoinitiator; electron transfe

    Dendrobium officinale

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    Background. Dendrobium officinale (DO) Kimura et Migo is a precious Chinese herb that is considered beneficial for health due to its antioxidant and antidiabetes properties, and so on. In this research, we try to determine the preventive effect of DO on the early complications of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Type 1 diabetic rats were produced with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). DO (1 g/kg/day) was then orally administered for 5 weeks. Blood glucose, TC, TG, BUN, CREA, and GSH-PX levels were determined, and electroretinographic activity and hypoalgesia were investigated. Pathological sections of the eyes, hearts, aortas, kidneys, and livers were analyzed. Results. Treatment with DO significantly attenuated the serum levels of TC, TG, BUN, and CREA, markedly increased the amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves and Ops, and reduced the hypoalgesia and histopathological changes of vital organs induced by hyperglycemia. The protective effect of DO in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the marked increase in the serum level of glutathione peroxidase. However, DO had no significant effect on blood glucose levels and bodyweight of diabetic rats. Conclusions. DO supplementation is an effective treatment to prevent STZ-induced diabetic complications

    Distribution of Serotypes, Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Genes among Streptococcus agalactiae Isolated from Bovine in China

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    Background: Bovine mastitis, a global disease that is responsible for large economic losses each year due to lower milk yield and reduced milk quality. In some countries, especially in China, Streptococcus agalactiae has become one of the most frequently detected pathogen. Antibiotic treatment and vaccine immunization are important strategies for the control of infectious diseases. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate distribution of bovine mastitis pathogens and antimicrobial resistance of S. agalactiae, and contribute to the treatment of bovine mastitis.Materials, Methods & Results:Clinical mastitis samples (n= 1,122) were collected from 27 dairy farms located in 15 different provinces of China during 2012-2018. Thepathogens were identified by 16S rDNA method. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by disc diffusion method. Molecular characteristics was distinguished based on PCR. The results showed that the main pathogens were Streptococcus agalactiae (n= 324, 26.2%), Escherichia coli (n= 287, 23.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n= 131, 10.6%). The serotypes of Streptococcus agalactiae were serotype II (53.6%), Ia (44 %) and VII (1.2%), respectively. Streptococcus agalactiae were resistant to kanamycin (93.8%), gentamicin (49.4%), vancomycin (49.4%), tetracycline (35.8%), clindamycin (34.6%) and erythromycin (32.1%). The main resistance genes were ermA (53.1%) and ermB (85.2%). Resistance to erythromycin was attributed to the genes ermA (P < 0.05) and resistance to tetracycline was attributed to the genes tetK, tetM, tetO (P < 0.01). The virulence genes scpB (81.4%), cyl (100%), glnA (76.6%), cfb (98.8%), hylB (98.8%), scaA (69.1%) were detected in almost all isolates.Discussion: In the present study, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the pathogens isolated most frequently from clinical mastitis. In the case of S. agalactiae, we performed capsular serotyping of isolates. As a result, serotype II (53.6%), Ia (44 %) and VII (1.2%) were detected whichrevealed variation in the distinct geographical areas. We found that serotypes (Ia and II) and β-hemolytic have significant correlation (P < 0.01) in all isolated strains. We made an assumption that either in processes of capsular and haemolytic appearance effected the expression of another. The unclear mechanism remains to be resolved in the future. Penicillin was recommended as a preferred antibiotic for the treatment of both human and bovine S. agalactiae infection. In the present study, resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were observed in 32% and 34.6% of our strains, respectively. The results indicated that the ermB gene was most frequent among the erythromycin-resistant S. agalactiae. However, we found that the susceptibility to erythromycin and gene ermA have a significant interaction, while susceptibility to erythromycin and gene ermB have a not significant interaction by analyzing the relationship of phenotypic and genotypic resistance. The severity of S. agalactiae infections may be determined by various virulence factors. Surface enzyme ScpB, a C5a peptidase, encode by scpB gene, could promote bacterial invasion of epithelial cells by attenuating recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the site of infection. In the present study, the scpB gene was found in 81.4% of all strains. The results suggested the cyl, cfb, hylB and scpB genes may play an important role in the virulence of Streptococcus agalactiae pathogens

    Fully Automated Detection of Corticospinal Tract Damage in Chronic Stroke Patients

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    Structural integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke is closely linked to the degree of motor impairment. However, current methods for measurement of fractional atrophy (FA) of CST based on region of interest (ROI) are time-consuming and open to bias. Here, we used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) together with a CST template with healthy volunteers to quantify structural integrity of CST automatically. Two groups of patients after ischemic stroke were enrolled, group 1 (10 patients, 7 men, and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores ⩽ 50) and group 2 (12 patients, 12 men, and FMA scores = 100). CST of FAipsi, FAcontra, and FAratio was compared between the two groups. Relative to group 2, FA was decreased in group 1 in the ipsilesional CST (P<0.01), as well as the FAratio (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the two subgroups in the contralesional CST (P=0.23). Compared with contralesional CST, FA of ipsilesional CST decreased in group 1 (P<0.01). These results suggest that the automated method used in our study could detect a surrogate biomarker to quantify the CST after stroke, which would facilitate implementation of clinical practice

    Local Magnetic Field Role in Star Formation

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    We highlight distinct and systematic observational features of magnetic field morphologies in polarized submm dust continuum. We illustrate this with specific examples and show statistical trends from a sample of 50 star-forming regions.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures; to appear in the EAS Proceedings of the 6th Zermatt ISM Symposium "Conditions and Impact of Star Formation from Lab to Space", September 201

    The Association of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ

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    Aims. To examine the association between 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ) polymorphisms and C-reactive protein (CRP) level and additional gene-gene interaction. Methods. Line regression analysis was performed to verify polymorphism association between SNP and CRP levels. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was employed to analyze the interaction. Results. A total of 1028 subjects (538 men, 490 women) were selected. The carriers of the C allele (TC or CC) of rs2016520 were associated with a significant decreased level of CRP, regression coefficients was −0.338, and standard error was 0.104 (p=0.001). The carriers of the G allele (CG or GG) of rs9794 were also significantly associated with decreased level of CRP, regression coefficients was −0.219, and standard error was 0.114 (p=0.012). We also found a potential gene-gene interaction between rs2016520 and rs9794. Subjects with rs2016520-TC or CC, rs9794-CG or GG genotypes have lowest CRP level, difference (95% CI) = −0.50 (−0.69 to −0.21) (p<0.001), compared to subjects with rs2016520-TT and rs9794-CC genotypes. Conclusions. rs2016520 and rs9794 minor allele of PPARδ and combined effect between the two SNP were associated with decreased CRP level
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