167 research outputs found

    Paid Peering, Settlement-Free Peering, or Both?

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    With the rapid growth of congestion-sensitive and data-intensive applications, traditional settlement-free peering agreements with best-effort delivery often do not meet the QoS requirements of content providers (CPs). Meanwhile, Internet access providers (IAPs) feel that revenues from end-users are not sufficient to recoup the upgrade costs of network infrastructures. Consequently, some IAPs have begun to offer CPs a new type of peering agreement, called paid peering, under which they provide CPs with better data delivery quality for a fee. In this paper, we model a network platform where an IAP makes decisions on the peering types offered to CPs and the prices charged to CPs and end-users. We study the optimal peering schemes for the IAP, i.e., to offer CPs both the paid and settlement-free peering to choose from or only one of them, as the objective is profit or welfare maximization. Our results show that 1) the IAP should always offer the paid and settlement-free peering under the profit-optimal and welfare-optimal schemes, respectively, 2) whether to simultaneously offer the other peering type is largely driven by the type of data traffic, e.g., text or video, and 3) regulators might want to encourage the IAP to allocate more network capacity to the settlement-free peering for increasing user welfare

    On Optimal Service Differentiation in Congested Network Markets

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    As Internet applications have become more diverse in recent years, users having heavy demand for online video services are more willing to pay higher prices for better services than light users that mainly use e-mails and instant messages. This encourages the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to explore service differentiations so as to optimize their profits and allocation of network resources. Much prior work has focused on the viability of network service differentiation by comparing with the case of a single-class service. However, the optimal service differentiation for an ISP subject to resource constraints has remained unsolved. In this work, we establish an optimal control framework to derive the analytical solution to an ISP's optimal service differentiation, i.e. the optimal service qualities and associated prices. By analyzing the structures of the solution, we reveal how an ISP should adjust the service qualities and prices in order to meet varying capacity constraints and users' characteristics. We also obtain the conditions under which ISPs have strong incentives to implement service differentiation and whether regulators should encourage such practices

    Sampling Online Social Networks via Heterogeneous Statistics

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    Most sampling techniques for online social networks (OSNs) are based on a particular sampling method on a single graph, which is referred to as a statistics. However, various realizing methods on different graphs could possibly be used in the same OSN, and they may lead to different sampling efficiencies, i.e., asymptotic variances. To utilize multiple statistics for accurate measurements, we formulate a mixture sampling problem, through which we construct a mixture unbiased estimator which minimizes asymptotic variance. Given fixed sampling budgets for different statistics, we derive the optimal weights to combine the individual estimators; given fixed total budget, we show that a greedy allocation towards the most efficient statistics is optimal. In practice, the sampling efficiencies of statistics can be quite different for various targets and are unknown before sampling. To solve this problem, we design a two-stage framework which adaptively spends a partial budget to test different statistics and allocates the remaining budget to the inferred best statistics. We show that our two-stage framework is a generalization of 1) randomly choosing a statistics and 2) evenly allocating the total budget among all available statistics, and our adaptive algorithm achieves higher efficiency than these benchmark strategies in theory and experiment

    Stochastic Modeling of Hybrid Cache Systems

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    In recent years, there is an increasing demand of big memory systems so to perform large scale data analytics. Since DRAM memories are expensive, some researchers are suggesting to use other memory systems such as non-volatile memory (NVM) technology to build large-memory computing systems. However, whether the NVM technology can be a viable alternative (either economically and technically) to DRAM remains an open question. To answer this question, it is important to consider how to design a memory system from a "system perspective", that is, incorporating different performance characteristics and price ratios from hybrid memory devices. This paper presents an analytical model of a "hybrid page cache system" so to understand the diverse design space and performance impact of a hybrid cache system. We consider (1) various architectural choices, (2) design strategies, and (3) configuration of different memory devices. Using this model, we provide guidelines on how to design hybrid page cache to reach a good trade-off between high system throughput (in I/O per sec or IOPS) and fast cache reactivity which is defined by the time to fill the cache. We also show how one can configure the DRAM capacity and NVM capacity under a fixed budget. We pick PCM as an example for NVM and conduct numerical analysis. Our analysis indicates that incorporating PCM in a page cache system significantly improves the system performance, and it also shows larger benefit to allocate more PCM in page cache in some cases. Besides, for the common setting of performance-price ratio of PCM, "flat architecture" offers as a better choice, but "layered architecture" outperforms if PCM write performance can be significantly improved in the future.Comment: 14 pages; mascots 201

    Joint Rate Selection and Wireless Network Coding for Time Critical Applications

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    In this paper, we dynamically select the transmission rate and design wireless network coding to improve the quality of services such as delay for time critical applications. With low transmission rate, and hence longer transmission range, more packets may be encoded together, which increases the coding opportunity. However, low transmission rate may incur extra transmission delay, which is intolerable for time critical applications. We design a novel joint rate selection and wireless network coding (RSNC) scheme with delay constraint, so as to minimize the total number of packets that miss their deadlines at the destination nodes. We prove that the proposed problem is NPhard, and propose a novel graph model and transmission metric which consider both the heterogenous transmission rates and the packet deadline constraints during the graph construction. Using the graph model, we mathematically formulate the problem and design an efficient algorithm to determine the transmission rate and coding strategy for each transmission. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the RSNC scheme.Comment: Accepted by 2012 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC