129 research outputs found

    Induction of immune responses in ducks with a DNA vaccine encoding duck plague virus glycoprotein C

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A DNA vaccine expressing glycoprotein C (gC) of duck plague virus (DPV) was evaluated for inducing immunity in ducks. The plasmid encoding gC of DPV was administered via intramuscular (IM) injection and gene gun bombardment.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>After immunization by both routes virus-specific serum antibody and T-cell responses developed. Vaccination of ducks by IM injection induced a stronger humoral, but weaker cell-mediated immune response. In contrast, a better cell-mediated immune response was achieved by using a gene gun to deliver DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis with as little as 6 μg of DNA.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This demonstrated that both routes of DNA inoculation can be used for eliciting virus-specific immune responses. Although DNA vaccine containing DPV gC is effective in both intramuscular injection and gene gun bombardment, the latter could induce significantly higher cell-mediated responses against DPV.</p

    Multi‐Scale Microstructural Thermoelectric Materials: Transport Behavior, Non‐Equilibrium Preparation, and Applications

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    Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/137226/1/adma201602013_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/137226/2/adma201602013.pd

    Atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) at a rural coastal site in North China: Seasonal variations and effects of biomass burning

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    Nitrous acid (HONO) plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry due to its contribution to hydroxyl radical (OH). However, no scientific consensus has been achieved about the daytime HONO formation mechanisms. To identify the seasonal variations of HONO chemistry and the impacts of biomass burning (BB), we performed a two-phased field study in winter-spring and summer (covering a harvest season) in 2017 at a rural coastal site in North China. Though the mean HONO concentration in winter-spring (0.26 +/- 0.28 ppbv) was higher than in summer (0.17 + 0.19 ppbv), the maximum HONO concentrations were comparable (similar to 2 ppbv) in the two campaigns. Both the HONO/NOx ratio and nocturnal heterogeneous conversion efficiency of HONO (C-HONO) in summer were over twice of that in winter-spring. The daytime budget analysis also revealed that the strength of P(othe)r (i.e., the HONO sources apart from the reaction of OH + NO) in summer was double of that in winter-spring. BB affected the HONO concentration by enhancing the contribution of heterogeneous HONO production on the aerosol surface but weakening the role of photo-related HONO formation. HONO photolysis was a significant source of OH in both winter-spring and summer, and its contribution could be further enhanced during the BB episode in summer. Our study demonstrates the significant seasonal variations of HONO and the effects of BB, and suggests needs for more multi-season observations and considerations of BB, especially during the harvest time, in HONO research

    Genomic traits of multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from diarrheic pigs

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    Diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections poses a significant challenge in global pig farming. To address this issue, the study was conducted to identify and characterize 19 ETEC isolates from fecal samples of diarrheic pigs sourced from large-scale farms in Sichuan Province, China. Whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis were utilized for identification and characterization. The isolates exhibited substantial resistance to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, florfenicol, and sulfadiazine, but were highly susceptible to amikacin, imipenem, and cefoxitin. Genetic diversity among the isolates was observed, with serotypes O22:H10, O163orOX21:H4, and O105:H8 being dominant. Further analysis revealed 53 resistance genes and 13 categories of 195 virulence factors. Of concern was the presence of tet(X4) in some isolates, indicating potential public health risks. The ETEC isolates demonstrated the ability to produce either heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) alone or both heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and ST simultaneously, involving various virulence genes. Notably, STa were linked to human disease. Additionally, the presence of 4 hybrid ETEC/STEC isolates harboring Shiga-like toxin-related virulence factors, namely stx2a, stx2b, and stx2e-ONT-2771, was identified. IncF plasmids carrying multiple antimicrobial resistance genes were prevalent, and a hybrid ETEC/STEC plasmid was detected, highlighting the role of plasmids in hybrid pathotype emergence. These findings emphasized the multidrug resistance and pathogenicity of porcine-origin ETEC strains and the potential risk of epidemics through horizontal transmission of drug resistance, which is crucial for effective control strategies and interventions to mitigate the impact on animal and human health

    Lack of association of -607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphisms in interleukin 18 gene with susceptibility to gout disease in Chinese Han male population

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    To identify association of IL18-607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphism with susceptibility to gout in Chinese Han male population, We evaluate the genetic contribution of the IL18-607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphism in 202 gout male patients and 493 gout-free control of Chinese Han population by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Our results reveal no significant association between the polymorphisms -607C/A and -137G/C in IL18 with gout. Our study might suggest that -607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphisms in the promoter of IL18 are not associated with susceptibility to gout and thus do not play a major role in the development of gout in the Chinese Han male population

    Development and efficacy evaluation of remodeled canine parvovirus-like particles displaying major antigenic epitopes of a giant panda derived canine distemper virus

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    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause fatal diseases in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The main capsid protein of CPV VP2 can be self-assembled to form virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro, which is of great significance for potential vaccine development. In the present study, we remodeled the VP2 protein of a giant panda-derived CPV, where the major CDV F and N epitopes were incorporated in the N-terminal and loop2 region in two combinations to form chimeric VLPs. The reactivity ability and morphology of the recombinant proteins were confirmed by Western blot, hemagglutination (HA) test and electron microscopy. Subsequently, the immunogenicity of the VLPs was examined in vivo. Antigen-specific antibodies and neutralizing activity were measured by ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and serum neutralization test (SNT), respectively. In addition, antigen specific T cell activation were determined in splenic lymphocytes. The results indicated that the VLPs displayed good reaction with CDV/CPV antibodies, and the heterologous epitopes do not hamper solubility or activity. The VLPs showed decent HA activity, and resembled round-shaped particles with a diameter of 22–26 nm, which is identical to natural virions. VLPs could induce high levels of specific antibodies to CPV and CDV, shown by the indication of neutralizing antibodies in both VP2N and VP2L VLPs group. In addition, splenic lymphocytes of mice immunized with VLPs could proliferate rapidly after stimulation by specific antigen. Taken together, the CPV VP2 VLPs or chimeric VLPs are highly immunogenic, and henceforth could function as CPV/CDV vaccine candidates for giant pandas

    Stimulated thyroglobulin and pre-ablation antithyroglobulin antibody products can predict the response to radioiodine therapy of TgAb-positive differentiated thyroid cancer patients: a retrospective study

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    ObjectiveWe aimed to explore the predictive value of stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) and pre-ablation antithyroglobulin (pa-TgAb) products for the effect of radioiodine therapy (RAIT) on TgAb-positive differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients.MethodsIn this study, we enrolled 265 patients with TgAb-positive DTC who underwent RAIT after total thyroidectomy (TT). Based on the last follow-up result, the patients were divided into two groups: the excellent response (ER) group and the non-excellent response (NER) group. We analyzed the factors related to the effect of RAIT.ResultsThe ER group consisted of 197 patients. The NER group consisted of 68 patients. For the univariate analysis, we found that the maximal tumor diameter, whether with extrathyroidal extension (ETE), bilateral or unilateral primary lesion, multifocality, preoperative TgAb (preop-TgAb), pa-TgAb, sTg × pa-TgAb, initial RAIT dose, N stage, and surgical extent (modified radical neck dissection or not), showed significant differences between the ER group and NER group (all p-values &lt;0.05). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that the cutoff value was 724.25 IU/ml, 424.00 IU/ml, and 59.73 for preop-TgAb, pa-TgAb, and sTg × pa-TgAb, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis results indicated that pa-TgAb, sTg × pa-TgAb, initial RAIT dose, and N stage were independent risk factors for NER (all p-values &lt;0.05). For the Kaplan–Meier analysis of disease-free survival (DFS), the median DFS of the patients with sTg × pa-TgAb &lt; 59.73 and initial RAIT dose ≤ 100 mCi was significantly longer than that of the patients with sTg × pa-TgAb ≥ 59.73 (50.27 months vs. 48.59 months, p = 0.041) and initial RAIT dose &gt;100 mCi (50.50 months vs. 38.00 months, p = 0.030).ConclusionWe found the sTg and pa-TgAb conducts is a good predictor of the efficacy of RAIT in TgAb-positive DTC patients. It can play a very positive and important role in optimizing treatment, improving prognosis, and reducing the burden of patients

    Increased expression of carbonic anhydrase I in the synovium of patients with ankylosing spondylitis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>One of the most distinctive features of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is new bone formation and bone resorption at sites of chronic inflammation. Previous studies have indicated that the hyperplasia and inflammation of synovial tissues are significantly related to the pathogenic process of AS. The present study used a proteomic approach to identify novel AS-specific proteins by simultaneously comparing the expression profiles of synovial membranes from patients with AS, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Synovial tissues were collected from the hip joints of patients with AS and knee joints of patients with RA or OA (n = 10 for each disease) during joint replacement surgery. Proteins extracted from the synovial tissues were separated by 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE), and the proteins with significantly increased expression in the AS samples were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis. The results were verified using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Levels of the candidate proteins in synovial fluids from knee joints (n = 40 for each disease) were measured using ELISA.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The proteomic approach revealed significantly increased expression of carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) in the synovial membrane of patients with AS as compared with the RA and OA tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis confirmed the findings described above. The ELISA detected a higher level of CA1 in synovial fluids from patients with AS than those with OA. The mean value of the CA1 level was also higher in AS patients as compared with RA patients. This study also detected increased expression of alpha-1-antitrypsin in the synovial tissues from AS patients, which is in agreement with other reports.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p><it>In vitro </it>experiments by other groups indicated that CA1 catalyzes the generation of HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>- </sup>through the hydration of CO<sub>2</sub>, which then combines with Ca<sup>2+ </sup>to form a CaCO3 precipitate. Calcification is an essential step of bone formation. Substantial evidence indicates that carbonic anhydrase also stimulates bone resorption. Hence, overexpression of CA1 in the synovial tissues of AS patients may promote improper calcification and bone resorption in AS.</p

    The molecular diversity of transcriptional factor TfoX is a determinant in natural transformation in Glaesserella parasuis

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    Natural transformation is a mechanism by which a particular bacterial species takes up foreign DNA and integrates it into its genome. The swine pathogen Glaesserella parasuis (G. parasuis) is a naturally transformable bacterium. The regulation of competence, however, is not fully understood. In this study, the natural transformability of 99 strains was investigated. Only 44% of the strains were transformable under laboratory conditions. Through a high-resolution melting curve and phylogenetic analysis, we found that genetic differences in the core regulator of natural transformation, the tfoX gene, leads to two distinct natural transformation phenotypes. In the absence of the tfoX gene, the highly transformable strain SC1401 lost its natural transformability. In addition, when the SC1401 tfoX gene was replaced by the tfoX of SH0165, which has no natural transformability, competence was also lost. These results suggest that TfoX is a core regulator of natural transformation in G. parasuis, and that differences in tfoX can be used as a molecular indicator of natural transformability. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the SC1401 wildtype strain, and a tfoX gene deletion strain showed that differential gene expression and protein synthesis is mainly centered on pathways related to glucose metabolism. The results suggest that tfoX may mediate natural transformation by regulating the metabolism of carbon sources. Our study provides evidence that tfoX plays an important role in the natural transformation of G. parasuis
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