78 research outputs found

    Symmetry-protected topological exceptional chains in non-Hermitian crystals

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    In non-Hermitian systems, the defective band degeneracies, so-called exceptional points (EPs), can form robust exceptional lines (ELs) in 3D momentum space in the absence of any symmetries, and a topological invariant, termed discriminant number (DN), can characterize the braiding topology around an EL. Here, we show that a natural orientation can be assigned to every EL according to the DN around it, and prove the source-free principle of ELs as a corollary of the generalized Fermion doubling theorem for EPs on an arbitrary closed oriented surface, which indicates that if several ELs flow into a junction, the same number of outflow ELs from the junction must exist. Based on this principle, we discover three different mechanisms that can stabilize the junction of ELs and therefore guarantee the formation of various types of exceptional chains (ECs) under the protection of mirror, mirror-adjoint, or C2T\mathcal{C}_2\mathcal{T} symmetries. Furthermore, we analyze the thresholdless perturbations to a Hermitian nodal line and map out all possible EC configurations that can be evolved. By strategically designing the structure and materials, we further exhibit that these exotic ECs can be readily observed in non-Hermitian photonic crystals. Our results directly manifest the combined effect of spatial symmetry and topology on the non-Hermitian singularities and pave the way for manipulating the morphology of ELs in non-Hermitian crystalline systems.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    RISE-based adaptive control of electro-hydraulic servo system with uncertain compensation

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    Electro-hydraulic servo system (EHSS) plays an important role in many industrial and military applications. However, its high-performance tracking control is still a challenging mission due to its nonlinear system dynamics and model uncertainties. In this paper, a novel adaptive robust integral method of the sign of the error (ARISE) with extended state observer (ESO) is proposed. Firstly, the nonlinear mathematical model of typical EHSS with modeling uncurtains and uncertain nonlinear is established. Then, ESO is used to estimate the state and lumped disturbance, of which the unknown parameter estimations can be updated by the novel adaptive law. Results shows that the novel controller achieves better tracking performance in maximum tracking error, average tracking error and standard deviation of the tracking error

    Different Distribution of Core Microbiota in Upper Soil Layer in Two Places of North China Plain

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    Backgrounds: Soils harbor diverse bacteria, and these bacteria play important roles in soil nutrition cycling and carbon storage. Numerous investigations of soil microbiota had been performed, and the core microbiota in different soil or vegetation soil types had been described. The upper layer of soil, as a source of organic matter, is important and affected by the habitats and dominant bacteria. However, the complexity of soil environments and relatively limited information of many geographic areas had attracted great attention on comprehensive exploration of soil microbes in enormous types of soil. Methods: To reveal the core upper layer soil microbiota, soil samples from metropolis and countryside regions in the North China Plain were investigated using high-throughput sequencing strategy. Results: The results showed that the most dominant bacteria are Proteobacteria (38.34%), Actinobacteria (20.56%), and Acidobacteria (15.18%). At the genus-level, the most abundant known genera are Gaiella (3.66%), Sphingomonas (3.6%), Acidobacteria Gp6 (3.52%), and Nocardioides (2.1%). Moreover, several dominant operational taxanomy units OTUs, such as OTU_3 and OTU_17, were identified to be associated with the soil environment. Microbial distributions of the metropolis samples were different from the countryside samples, which may reflect the environments in the countryside were more diverse than in the metropolis. Microbial diversity and evenness were higher in the metropolis than in the countryside, which might due to the fact that human activity increased the microbial diversity in the metropolis. Conclusion: The upper layer soil core microbiota of the North China Plain were complex, and microbial distributions in these two places might be mainly affected by the human activity and environmental factors, not by the distance. Our data highlights the upper layer soil core microbiota in North China Plain, and provides insights for future soil microbial distribution studies in central China

    The Role of KLF4 in Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a member of the family of zinc-finger transcription factors, is widely expressed in range of tissues that play multiple functions. Emerging evidence suggest KLF4’s critical regulatory effect on the neurophysiological and neuropathological processes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), indicating that KLF4 might be a potential therapeutic target of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will summarize relevant studies and illuminate the regulatory role of KLF4 in the neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, axon regeneration and iron accumulation to clarify KLF4’s status in the pathogenesis of AD

    Recent Advances in Herbal Medicines for Digestive System Malignancies

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    Herbal medicines, as an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have been used to treat digestive system malignancies (DSM) for many years, and have gradually gained recognition worldwide. The role of herbal medicines in the comprehensive treatment of DSM is being improved from adjuvant treatment of the autologous immune function in cancer patients, to the treatment of both the symptoms and disease, direct inhibition of tumor cell growth and proliferation, and induction of tumor cell autophagy and apoptosis. Their specific mechanisms in these treatments are also being explored. The paper reviews the current anti-tumor mechanisms of TCM, including single herbal medicines, Chinese herbal formulations, Chinese medicine preparations and TCM extract, and their application in the comprehensive treatment of digestive system tumors, providing a reference for clinical application of TCM

    Activation of MET signaling by HDAC6 offers a rationale for a novel ricolinostat and crizotinib combinatorial therapeutic strategy in diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma

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    Some histone deacetylases (HDACs) promote tumor cell growth and pan‐ or selective HDAC inhibitors are active in some cancers; however, the pivotal HDAC enzyme and its functions in human diffuse large B‐cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remain largely unknown. Using NanoString nCounter assays, we profiled HDAC mRNA expression and identified HDAC6 as an upregulated HDAC family member in DLBCL tissue samples. We then found that HDAC6 plays an oncogenic role in DLBCL, as evidenced by its promotion of cell proliferation in vitro and tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Mechanistically, the interaction between HDAC6 and HR23B downregulated HR23B expression, thereby reducing the levels of casitas B‐lineage lymphoma (c‐Cbl), an E3 ubiquitin ligase for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), which resulted in the inhibition of MET ubiquitination‐dependent degradation. In addition, enhanced HDAC6 expression and decreased HR23B expression were correlated with poor overall survival rates among patients with DLBCL. Taken together, these results establish an HDAC6–HR23B–MET axis and indicate that HDAC6 is a potent promoter of lymphomagenesis in DLBCL. Thus, a therapeutic strategy based on HDAC6 inhibitors in combination with MET inhibitors is promising. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/146400/1/path5108_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/146400/2/path5108.pd

    Role of Leptin in Mood Disorder and Neurodegenerative Disease

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    The critical regulatory role of leptin in the neuroendocrine system has been widely reported. Significantly, leptin can improve learning and memory, affect hippocampal synaptic plasticity, exert neuroprotective efficacy and reduce the risk of several neuropsychiatric diseases. In terms of depression, leptin could modulate the levels of neurotransmitters, neurotrophic factors and reverse the dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). At the same time, leptin affects neurological diseases during the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. With regards to neurodegenerative diseases, leptin can affect them via neuroprotection, mainly including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. This review will summarize the mechanisms of leptin signaling within the neuroendocrine system with respect to these diseases and discuss the therapeutic potential of leptin
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